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Ξενοφώντος Συμπόσιον Δ

THE SYMPOSIUM or The Banquet by Xenofon,
Translation by H. G. Dakyns

᾿Εκ τούτου ἔλεξεν ὁ Σωκράτης· Οὐκοῦν λοιπὸν ἂν εἴη ἡμῖν ἃ ἕκαστος ὑπέσχετο ἀποδεικνύναι ὡς πολλοῦ ἄξιά ἐστιν. ᾿Ακούοιτ᾿ ἄν, ἔφη ὁ Καλλίας, ἐμοῦ πρῶτον. ᾿Εγὼ γὰρ ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ ᾧ ὑμῶν ἀκούω ἀπορούντων τί τὸ δίκαιον, ἐν τούτῳ δικαιοτέρους τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ποιῶ. At this point, Socrates took up the conversation: It now devolves on us to prove in turn that what we each have undertaken to defend is really valuable.
Then Callias: Be pleased to listen to me first: My case is this, that while the rest of you go on debating what justice and uprightness are,1 I spend my time in making men more just and upright.
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης, Πῶς, ὦ λῷστε; ἔφη. Διδοὺς νὴ Δί᾿ ἀργύριον. Καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης ἐπαναστὰς μάλα ἐλεγκτικῶς αὐτὸν ἐπήρετο· Οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι, ὦ Καλλία, πότερον ἐν ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἢ ἐν τῷ βαλαντίῳ τὸ δίκαιόν σοι δοκοῦσιν ἔχειν; Soc. And how do you do that, good sir?

Call. By giving money, to be sure.

Antisthenes sprang to his feet at once, and with the manner of a cross-examiner demanded: Do human beings seem to you to harbour justice in their souls, or in their purses,2 Callias?
᾿Εν ταῖς ψυχαῖς, ἔφη. Call. In their souls.
Κἄπειτα σὺ εἰς τὸ βαλάντιον διδοὺς ἀργύριον τὰς ψυχὰς δικαιοτέρους ποιεῖς; Ant. And do you pretend to make their souls more righteous by putting money in their pockets?

Call. Undoubtedly.

Ant. Pray how?
῞Οτι διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι ὡς ἔστιν ὅτου πριάμενοι τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἕξουσιν οὐκ ἐθέλουσι κακουργοῦντες κινδυνεύειν. Call. In this way. When they know that they are furnished with the means, that is to say, my money, to buy necessaries, they would rather not incur the risk of evil-doing, and why should they?
᾿Η καί σοι, ἔφη, ἀποδιδόασιν ὅ τι ἂν λάβωσι; Ant. And pray, do they repay you these same moneys?
Μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐ μὲν δή. Call. I cannot say they do.
Τί δέ, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀργυρίου χάριτας; Ant. Well then, do they requite your gifts of gold with gratitude?
Οὐ μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐδὲ τοῦτο, ἀλλ᾿ ἔνιοι καὶ ἐχθιόνως ἔχουσιν ἢ πρὶν λαβεῖν. Call. No, not so much as a bare "Thank you." In fact, some of them are even worse disposed towards me when they have got my money than before.
Θαυμαστά γ᾿, ἔφη ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης ἅμα εἰσβλέπων ὡς ἐλέγχων αὐτόν, εἰ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς ἄλλους δύνασαι δικαίους [ἂν] ποιεῖν αὐτούς, πρὸς δὲ σαυτὸν οὔ. Now, here's a marvel! (exclaimed Antisthenes, and as he spoke he eyed the witness with an air of triumph). You can render people just to all the world, but towards yourself you cannot?
Καὶ τί τοῦτ᾿, ἔφη ὁ Καλλίας, θαυμαστόν; Οὐ καὶ τέκτονάς τε καὶ οἰκοδόμους πολλοὺς ὁρᾷς οἳ ἄλλοις μὲν πολλοῖς ποιοῦσιν οἰκίας, ἑαυτοῖς δὲ οὐ δύνανται ποιῆσαι, ἀλλ᾿ ἐν μισθωταῖς οἰκοῦσι; Καὶ ἀνάσχου μέντοι, ὦ σοφιστά, ἐλεγχόμενος. Pray, where's the wonder? (asked the other). Do you not see what scores of carpenters and house-builders there are who spend their time in building houses for half the world; but for themselves they simply cannot do it, and are forced to live in lodgings. And so admit that home-thrust, Master Sophist;3 and confess yourself confuted.
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, ἀνεχέσθω μέντοι· ἐπεὶ καὶ οἱ μάντεις λέγονται δήπου ἄλλοις μὲν προαγορεύειν τὸ μέλλον, ἑαυτοῖς δὲ μὴ προορᾶν τὸ ἐπιόν. Upon my soul, he had best accept his fate4 (said Socrates). Why, after all, you are only like those prophets who proverbially foretell the future for mankind, but cannot foresee what is coming upon themselves.
Οὗτος μὲν δὴ ὁ λόγος ἐνταῦθα ἔληξεν. And so the first discussion ended.5
᾿Εκ τούτου δὲ ὁ Νικήρατος, ᾿Ακούοιτ᾿ ἄν, ἔφη, καὶ ἐμοῦ ἃ ἔσεσθε βελτίονες, ἂν ἐμοὶ συνῆτε. ἴστε γὰρ δήπου ὅτι ῞Ομηρος ὁ σοφώτατος πεποίηκε σχεδὸν περὶ πάντων τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων. ὅστις ἂν οὖν ὑμῶν βούληται ἢ οἰκονομικὸς ἢ δημηγορικὸς ἢ στρατηγικὸς γενέσθαι ἢ ὅμοιος ᾿Αχιλλεῖ ἢ Αἴαντι ἢ Νέστορι ἢ ᾿Οδυσσεῖ, ἐμὲ θεραπευέτω. ᾿Εγὼ γὰρ ταῦτα πάντα ἐπίσταμαι. Thereupon Niceratus: Lend me your ears, and I will tell you in what respects you shall be better for consorting with myself. I presume, without my telling you, you know that Homer, being the wisest of mankind, has touched upon nearly every human topic in his poems.6 Whosoever among you, therefore, would fain be skilled in economy, or oratory, or strategy; whose ambition it is to be like Achilles, or Ajax, Nestor, or Odysseus--one and all pay court to me, for I have all this knowledge at my fingers' ends.
᾿Η καὶ βασιλεύειν, ἔφη ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης, ἐπίστασαι, ὅτι οἶσθα ἐπαινέσαντα αὐτὸν τὸν ᾿Αγαμέμνονα ὡς βασιλεύς τε εἴη ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾿ αἰχμητής; Pray (interposed Antisthenes),7 do you also know the way to be a king?8 since Homer praises Agamemnon, you are well aware, as being
A goodly king and eke a spearman bold.9
Καὶ ναὶ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, ἔγωγε ὅτι ἁρματηλατοῦντα δεῖ ἐγγὺς μὲν τῆς στήλης κάμψαι,

"αὐτὸν δὲ κλινθῆναι ἐυξέστου ἐπὶ δίφρου
ἦκ᾿ ἐπ᾿ ἀριστερὰ τοῖιν, ἀτὰρ τὸν δεξιὸν ἵππον
κένσαι ὁμοκλήσαντ᾿ εἶξαί τέ οἱ ἡνία χερσί."

Καὶ πρὸς τούτοις γε ἄλλο οἶδα, καὶ ὑμῖν αὐτίκα μάλ᾿ ἔξεστι πειρᾶσθαι. Εἶπε γάρ που ῞Ομηρος·
᾿Επὶ δὲ κρόμυον ποτῷ ὄψον.
᾿Εὰν οὖν ἐνέγκῃ τις κρόμμυον, αὐτίκα μάλα τοῦτό γε ὠφελημένοι ἔσεσθε· ἥδιον γὰρ πιεῖσθε.
Nic. Full well I know it, and full well I know the duty of a skilful charioteer; how he who holds the ribbons must turn his chariot nigh the pillar's edge10
Himself inclined upon the polished chariot-board
A little to the left of the twin pair: the right hand horse
Touch with the prick, and shout a cheery shout, and give him rein.11
I know another thing besides, and you may put it to the test this instant, if you like. Homer somewhere has said:12
And at his side an onion, which to drink gives relish.
So if some one will but bring an onion, you shall reap the benefit of my sage lore13 in less than no time, and your wine will taste the sweeter.
Καὶ ὁ Χαρμίδης εἶπεν· ᾿Ω ἄνδρες, ὁ Νικήρατος κρομμύων ὄζων ἐπιθυμεῖ οἴκαδε ἐλθεῖν, ἵν᾿ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ πιστεύῃ μηδὲ διανοηθῆναι μηδένα ἂν φιλῆσαι αὐτόν. Here Charmides exclaimed: Good sirs, let me explain. Niceratus is anxious to go home, redolent of onions, so that his fair lady may persuade herself, it never entered into anybody's head to kiss her lord.14
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, ἀλλ᾿ ἄλλην που δόξαν γελοίαν κίνδυνος ἡμῖν προσλαβεῖν. ὄψον μὲν γὰρ δὴ ὄντως ἔοικεν εἶναι, ὡς κρόμμυόν γε οὐ μόνον σῖτον ἀλλὰ καὶ ποτὸν ἡδύνει. Εἰ δὲ δὴ τοῦτο καὶ μετὰ δεῖπνον τρωξόμεθα, ὅπως μὴ φήσῃ τις ἡμᾶς πρὸς Καλλίαν ἐλθόντας ἡδυπαθεῖν. Bless me, that isn't all (continued Socrates); if we do not take care, we shall win ourselves a comic reputation.15 A relish must it be, in very truth, that can sweeten cup as well as platter, this same onion; and if we are to take to munching onions for desert, see if somebody does not say of us, "They went to dine with Callias, and got more than their deserts, the epicures."16
Μηδαμῶς, ἔφη, ὦ Σώκρατες. Εἰς μὲν γὰρ μάχην ὁρμωμένῳ καλῶς ἔχει κρόμμυον ὑποτρώγειν, ὥσπερ ἔνιοι τοὺς ἀλεκτρυόνας σκόροδα σιτίσαντες συμβάλλουσιν· ἡμεῖς δὲ ἴσως βουλευόμεθα ὅπως φιλήσομέν τινα μᾶλλον ἢ μαχούμεθα. No fear of that (rejoined Niceratus). Always take a bite of onion before speeding forth to battle, just as your patrons of the cock-pit give their birds a feed of garlic17 before they put them for the fight. But for ourselves our thoughts are less intent perhaps on dealing blows than blowing kisses.18
Καὶ οὗτος μὲν δὴ ὁ λόγος οὕτω πως ἐπαύσατο. ῾Ο δὲ Κριτόβουλος, Οὐκοῦν αὖ ἐγὼ λέξω, ἔφη, ἐξ ὧν ἐπὶ τῷ κάλλει μέγα φρονῶ. Λέγε, ἔφασαν. After such sort the theme of their discourse reached its conclusion. Then Critobulus spoke: It is now my turn, I think, to state to you the grounds on which I pride myself on beauty.19
A chorus of voices rejoined: Say on.
Εἰ μὲν τοίνυν μὴ καλός εἰμι, ὡς οἴομαι, ὑμεῖς ἂν δικαίως ἀπάτης δίκην ὑπέχοιτε· οὐδενὸς γὰρ ὁρκίζοντος ἀεὶ ὀμνύοντες καλόν μέ φατε εἶναι. Κἀγὼ μέντοι πιστεύω. Καλοὺς γὰρ καὶ ἀγαθοὺς ὑμᾶς ἄνδρας νομίζω. Εἰ δ᾿ εἰμί τε τῷ ὄντι καλὸς καὶ ὑμεῖς τὰ αὐτὰ πρὸς ἐμὲ πάσχετε οἷάπερ ἐγὼ πρὸς τὸν ἐμοὶ δοκοῦντα καλὸν εἶναι, ὄμνυμι πάντας θεοὺς μὴ ἑλέσθαι ἂν τὴν βασιλέως ἀρχὴν ἀντὶ τοῦ καλὸς εἶναι. Νῦν γὰρ ἐγὼ Κλεινίαν ἥδιον μὲν θεῶμαι ἢ τἆλλα πάντα τὰ ἐν ἀνθρώποις καλά· τυφλὸς δὲ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων μᾶλλον δεξαίμην ἂν εἶναι ἢ Κλεινίου ἑνὸς ὄντος· ἄχθομαι δὲ καὶ νυκτὶ καὶ ὕπνῳ ὅτι ἐκεῖνον οὐχ ὁρῶ, ἡμέρᾳ δὲ καὶ ἡλίῳ τὴν μεγίστην χάριν οἶδα ὅτι μοι Κλεινίαν ἀναφαίνουσιν. Crit. To begin with, if I am not beautiful, as methinks I be, you will bring on your own heads the penalty of perjury; for, without waiting to have the oath administered, you are always taking the gods to witness that you find me beautiful. And I must needs believe you, for are you not all honourable men?20 If I then be so beautiful and affect you, even as I also am affected by him whose fair face here attracts me,21 I swear by all the company of heaven I would not choose the great king's empire in exchange for what I am--the beauty of the world, the paragon of animals.22 And at this instant I feast my eyes on Cleinias23 gladlier than on all other sights which men deem fair. Joyfully will I welcome blindness to all else, if but these eyes may still behold him and him only. With sleep and night I am sore vexed, which rob me of his sight; but to daylight and the sun I owe eternal thanks, for they restore him to me, my heart's joy, Cleinias.24
ἄξιόν γε μὴν ἡμῖν τοῖς καλοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖσδε μέγα φρονεῖν, ὅτι τὸν μὲν ἰσχυρὸν πονοῦντα δεῖ κτᾶσθαι τἀγαθὰ καὶ τὸν ἀνδρεῖον κινδυνεύοντα, τὸν δέ γε σοφὸν λέγοντα· ὁ δὲ καλὸς καὶ ἡσυχίαν ἔχων πάντ᾿ ἂν διαπράξαιτο. ᾿Εγὼ γοῦν καίπερ εἰδὼς ὅτι χρήματα ἡδὺ κτῆμα ἥδιον μὲν ἂν Κλεινίᾳ τὰ ὄντα διδοίην ἢ ἕτερα παρ᾿ ἄλλου λαμβάνοιμι, ἥδιον δ᾿ ἂν δουλεύοιμι ἢ ἐλεύθερος εἴην, εἴ μου Κλεινίας ἄρχειν ἐθέλοι. Καὶ γὰρ πονοίην ἂν ῥᾷον ἐκείνῳ ἢ ἀναπαυοίμην, καὶ κινδυνεύοιμ᾿ ἂν πρὸ ἐκείνου ἥδιον ἢ ἀκίνδυνος ζῴην. ὥστε εἰ σύ, ὦ Καλλία, μέγα φρονεῖς ὅτι δικαιοτέρους δύνασαι ποιεῖν, ἐγὼ πρὸς πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν δικαιότερος σοῦ εἰμι ἄγων ἀνθρώπους. Διὰ γὰρ τὸ ἐμπνεῖν τι ἡμᾶς τοὺς καλοὺς τοῖς ἐρωτικοῖς ἐλευθεριωτέρους μὲν αὐτοὺς ποιοῦμεν εἰς χρήματα, φιλοπονωτέρους δὲ καὶ φιλοκαλωτέρους ἐν τοῖς κινδύνοις, καὶ μὴν αἰδημονεστέρους τε καὶ ἐγκρατεστέρους, οἵ γε καὶ ὧν δέονται μάλιστα ταῦτ᾿ αἰσχύνονται. Μαίνονται δὲ καὶ οἱ μὴ τοὺς καλοὺς στρατηγοὺς αἱρούμενοι. ᾿Εγὼ γοῦν μετὰ Κλεινίου κἂν διὰ πυρὸς ἰοίην· οἶδα δ᾿ ὅτι καὶ ὑμεῖς μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ. Yes, and herein also have we, the beautiful,25 just claim to boast. The strong man may by dint of toil obtain good things; the brave, by danger boldly faced, and the wise by eloquence of speech; but to the beautiful alone it is given to achieve all ends in absolute quiescence. To take myself as an example. I know that riches are a sweet possession, yet sweeter far to me to give all that I have to Cleinias than to receive a fortune from another. Gladly would I become a slave--ay, forfeit freedom--if Cleinias would deign to be my lord. Toil in his service were easier for me than rest from labour: danger incurred in his behalf far sweeter than security of days. So that if you, Callias, may boast of making men more just and upright, to me belongs by juster right than yours to train mankind to every excellence. We are the true inspirers26 who infuse some subtle fire into amorous souls, we beauties, and thereby raise them to new heights of being; we render them more liberal in the pursuit of wealth; we give them a zest for toil that mocks at danger, and enables them where honour the fair vision leads, to follow.27 We fill their souls with deeper modesty, a self-constraint more staunch; about the things they care for most, there floats a halo of protecting awe.28 Fools and unwise are they who choose not beauteous men to be their generals. How merrily would I, at any rate, march through fire by the side of Cleinias;29 and so would all of you, I know full well, in company of him who now addresses you.
ὥστε μηκέτι ἀπόρει, ὦ Σώκρατες, εἴ τι τοὐμὸν κάλλος ἀνθρώπους ὠφελήσει. Cease, therefore, your perplexity, O Socrates, abandon fears and doubts, believe and know that this thing of which I make great boast, my beauty, has power to confer some benefit on humankind.
᾿Αλλ᾿ οὐδὲ μέντοι ταύτῃ γε ἀτιμαστέον τὸ κάλλος ὡς ταχὺ παρακμάζον, ἐπεὶ ὥσπερ γε παῖς γίγνεται καλός, οὕτω καὶ μειράκιον καὶ ἀνὴρ καὶ πρεσβύτης. Τεκμήριον δέ· θαλλοφόρους γὰρ τῇ ᾿Αθηνᾷ τοὺς καλοὺς γέροντας ἐκλέγονται, ὡς συμπαρομαρτοῦντος πάσῃ ἡλικίᾳ τοῦ κάλλους. Once more, let no man dare dishonour beauty, merely because the flower of it soon fades, since even as a child has growth in beauty, so is it with the stripling, the grown man, the reverend senior.30 And this the proof of my contention. Whom do we choose to bear the sacred olive-shoot31 in honour of Athena?--whom else save beautiful old men? witnessing thereby32 that beauty walks hand in hand as a companion with every age of life, from infancy to eld.
Εἰ δὲ ἡδὺ τὸ παρ᾿ ἑκόντων διαπράττεσθαι ὧν τις δέοιτο, εὖ οἶδ᾿ ὅτι καὶ νυνὶ θᾶττον ἂν ἐγὼ καὶ σιωπῶν πείσαιμι τὸν παῖδα τόνδε καὶ τὴν παῖδα φιλῆσαί με ἢ σύ, ὦ Σώκρατες, εἰ καὶ πάνυ πολλὰ καὶ σοφὰ λέγοις. Or again, if it be sweet to win from willing hearts the things we seek for, I am persuaded that, by the eloquence of silence, I could win a kiss from yonder girl or boy more speedily than ever you could, O sage! by help of half a hundred subtle arguments.
Τί τοῦτο; ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης· ὡς γὰρ καὶ ἐμοῦ καλλίων ὢν ταῦτα κομπάζεις. Eh, bless my ears, what's that? (Socrates broke in upon this final flourish of the speaker). So beautiful you claim to rival me, you boaster?
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Κριτόβουλος, ἢ πάντων Σειληνῶν τῶν ἐν τοῖς σατυρικοῖς αἴσχιστος ἂν εἴην. [ὁ δὲ Σωκράτης καὶ ἐτύγχανε προσεμφερὴς τούτοις ὤν.] Crit. Why, yes indeed, I hope so, or else I should be uglier than all the Silenuses in the Satyric drama.33
῎Αγε νυν, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, ὅπως μεμνήσῃ διακριθῆναι περὶ τοῦ κάλλους, ἐπειδὰν οἱ προκείμενοι λόγοι περιέλθωσι. Κρινάτω δ᾿ ἡμᾶς μὴ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ Πριάμου, ἀλλ᾿ αὐτοὶ οὗτοι οὕσπερ σὺ οἴει ἐπιθυμεῖν σε φιλῆσαι. Good! (Socrates rejoined); the moment the programme of discussion is concluded,34 please remember, we must obtain a verdict on the point of beauty. Judgment shall be given--not at the bar of Alexander, son of Priam--but of these35 who, as you flatter yourself, have such a hankering to kiss you.
Κλεινίᾳ δ᾿, ἔφη, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὐκ ἂν ἐπιτρέψαις; Oh, Socrates (he answered, deprecatingly), will you not leave it to the arbitrament of Cleinias?
Καὶ ὃς εἶπεν· Οὐ γὰρ παύσῃ σὺ Κλεινίου μεμνημένος; Then Socrates: Will you never tire of repeating that one name? It is Cleinias here, there, and everywhere with you.
῍Αν δὲ μὴ ὀνομάζω, ἧττόν τί με οἴει μεμνῆσθαι αὐτοῦ; Οὐκ οἶσθα ὅτι οὕτω σαφὲς ἔχω εἴδωλον αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ ὡς εἰ πλαστικὸς ἢ ζωγραφικὸς ἦν, οὐδὲν ἂν ἧττον ἐκ τοῦ εἰδώλου ἢ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁρῶν ὅμοιον αὐτῷ ἀπειργασάμην; Crit. And if his name died on my lips, think you my mind would less recall his memory? Know you not, I bear so clear an image of him in my soul, that had I the sculptor's or the limner's skill, I might portray his features as exactly from this image of the mind as from contemplation of his actual self.
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης ὑπέλαβε· Τί δῆτα οὕτως ὅμοιον εἴδωλον ἔχων πράγματά μοι παρέχεις ἄγεις τε αὐτὸν ὅπου ὄψει; But Socrates broke in: Pray, why then, if you bear about this lively image, why do you give me so much trouble, dragging me to this and that place, where you hope to see him?
῞Οτι, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἡ μὲν αὐτοῦ ὄψις εὐφραίνειν δύναται, ἡ δὲ τοῦ εἰδώλου τέρψιν μὲν οὐ παρέχει, πόθον δὲ ἐμποιεῖ. Crit. For this good reason, Socrates, the sight of him inspires gladness, whilst his phantom brings not joy so much as it engenders longing.
Καὶ ὁ ῾Ερμογένης εἶπεν· ᾿Αλλ᾿ ἐγώ, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὐδὲ πρὸς σοῦ ποιῶ τὸ περιιδεῖν Κριτόβουλον οὕτως ὑπὸ τοῦ ἔρωτος ἐκπλαγέντα. At this point Hermogenes protested: I find it most unlike you, Socrates, to treat thus negligently one so passion-crazed as Critobulus.
Δοκεῖς γάρ, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, ἐξ οὗ ἐμοὶ σύνεστιν οὕτω διατεθῆναι αὐτόν; Socrates replied: Do you suppose the sad condition of the patient dates from the moment only of our intimacy?
Αλλὰ πότε μήν; Herm. Since when, then?
᾿Οὐχ ὁρᾷς ὅτι τούτῳ μὲν παρὰ τὰ ὦτα ἄρτι ἴουλος καθέρπει, Κλεινίᾳ δὲ πρὸς τὸ ὄπισθεν ἤδη ἀναβαίνει; Οὗτος οὖν συμφοιτῶν εἰς ταὐτὸ διδασκαλεῖον ἐκείνῳ τότε ἰσχυρῶς προσεκαύθη. ἃ δὴ αἰσθόμενος ὁ πατὴρ παρέδωκέ μοι αὐτόν, εἴ τι δυναίμην ὠφελῆσαι. Καὶ μέντοι πολὺ βέλτιον ἤδη ἔχει. Πρόσθεν μὲν γάρ, ὥσπερ οἱ τὰς Γοργόνας θεώμενοι, λιθίνως ἔβλεπε πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ [λιθίνως] οὐδαμοῦ ἀπῄει ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ· νῦν δὲ ἤδη εἶδον αὐτὸν καὶ σκαρδαμύξαντα. Καίτοι νὴ τοὺς θεούς, ὦ ἄνδρες, δοκεῖ μοί γ᾿, ἔφη, ὡς ἐν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς εἰρῆσθαι, οὗτος καὶ πεφιληκέναι τὸν Κλεινίαν· οὗ ἔρωτος οὐδέν ἐστι δεινότερον ὑπέκκαυμα. Καὶ γὰρ ἄπληστον καὶ ἐλπίδας τινὰς γλυκείας παρέχει. [ἴσως δὲ καὶ διὰ τὸ μόνον πάντων ἔργων τὸ τοῖς σώμασι συμψαύειν ὁμώνυμον εἶναι τῷ ταῖς ψυχαῖς φιλεῖσθαι ἐντιμότερόν ἐστιν.] οὗ ἕνεκα ἀφεκτέον ἐγώ φημι εἶναι φιλημάτων [τῶν] ὡραίων τῷ σωφρονεῖν δυνησομένῳ. Καὶ ὁ Χαρμίδης εἶπεν· Soc. Since when? Why, look at him: the down begins to mantle on his cheeks,36 and on the nape37 of Cleinias' neck already mounts. The fact is, when they fared to the same school together, he caught the fever. This his father was aware of, and consigned him to me, hoping I might be able to do something for him. Ay, and his plight is not so sorry now. Once he would stand agape at him like one whose gaze is fixed upon the Gorgons,38 his eyes one stony stare, and like a stone himself turn heavily away. But nowadays I have seen the statue actually blink.39 And yet, may Heaven help me! my good sirs, I think, between ourselves, the culprit must have bestowed a kiss on Cleinias, than which love's flame asks no fiercer fuel.40 So insatiable a thing it is and so suggestive of mad fantasy. And for this reason held perhaps in higher honour, because of all external acts the close of lip with lip bears the same name as that of soul with soul in love.41 Wherefore, say I, let every one who wishes to be master of himself and sound of soul abstain from kisses imprinted on fair lips.42
᾿Αλλὰ τί δή ποτε, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἡμᾶς μὲν οὕτω τοὺς φίλους μορμολύττῃ ἀπὸ τῶν καλῶν, αὐτὸν δέ σε, ἔφη, ἐγὼ εἶδον ναὶ μὰ τὸν ᾿Απόλλω, ὅτε παρὰ τῷ γραμματιστῇ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ βιβλίῳ ἀμφότεροι ἐμαστεύετέ τι, τὴν κεφαλὴν πρὸς τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ τὸν ὦμον γυμνὸν πρὸς γυμνῷ τῷ Κριτοβούλου ὤμῳ ἔχοντα. Then Charmides: Oh! Socrates, why will you scare your friends with these hobgoblin terrors,43 bidding us all beware of handsome faces, whilst you yourself--yes, by Apollo, I will swear I saw you at the schoolmaster's44 that time when both of you were poring over one book, in which you searched for something, you and Critobulus, head to head, shoulder to shoulder bare, as if incorporate?45
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης, Φεῦ, ἔφη, ταῦτ᾿ ἄρα[, ἔφη,] ἐγὼ ὥσπερ ὑπὸ θηρίου τινὸς δεδηγμένος τόν τε ὦμον πλεῖν ἢ πέντε ἡμέρας ὤδαξον καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὥσπερ κνῆσμά τι ἐδόκουν ἔχειν. ᾿Αλλὰ νῦν τοί σοι, ἔφη, ὦ Κριτόβουλε, ἐναντίον τοσούτων μαρτύρων προαγορεύω μὴ ἅπτεσθαί μου πρὶν ἂν τὸ γένειον τῇ κεφαλῇ ὁμοίως κομήσῃς. As yes, alack the day! (he answered); and that is why, no doubt, my shoulder ached for more than five days afterwards, as if I had been bitten by some fell beast, and methought I felt a sort of scraping at the heart.46 Now therefore, in the presence of these witnesses, I warn you, Critobulus, never again to touch me till you wear as thick a crop of hair47 upon your chin as on your head.
Καὶ οὗτοι μὲν δὴ οὕτως ἀναμὶξ ἔσκωψάν τε καὶ ἐσπούδασαν. ῾Ο δὲ Καλλίας, Σὸν μέρος, ἔφη, λέγειν, ὦ Χαρμίδη, δι᾿ ὅ τι ἐπὶ πενίᾳ μέγα φρονεῖς. So pell-mell they went at it, half jest half earnest, and so the medley ended. Callias here called on Charmides.

Call. Now, Charmides, it lies with you to tell us why you pride yourself on poverty.48
Οὐκοῦν τόδε μέν, ἔφη, ὁμολογεῖται, κρεῖττον εἶναι θαρρεῖν ἢ φοβεῖσθαι καὶ ἐλεύθερον εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ δουλεύειν καὶ θεραπεύεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ θεραπεύειν καὶ πιστεύεσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς πατρίδος μᾶλλον ἢ ἀπιστεῖσθαι. Charmides responded: On all hands it is admitted, I believe, that confidence is better than alarm; better to be a freeman than a slave; better to be worshipped than pay court to others; better to be trusted than to be suspected by one's country.
᾿Εγὼ τοίνυν ἐν τῇδε τῇ πόλει ὅτε μὲν πλούσιος ἦν πρῶτον μὲν ἐφοβούμην μή τίς μου τὴν οἰκίαν διορύξας καὶ τὰ χρήματα λάβοι καὶ αὐτόν τί με κακὸν ἐργάσαιτο· ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τοὺς συκοφάντας ἐθεράπευον, εἰδὼς ὅτι παθεῖν μᾶλλον κακῶς ἱκανὸς εἴην ἢ ποιῆσαι ἐκείνους. Καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ προσετάττετο μὲν ἀεί τί μοι δαπανᾶν ὑπὸ τῆς πόλεως, ἀποδημῆσαι δὲ οὐδαμοῦ ἐξῆν. Νῦν δ᾿ ἐπειδὴ τῶν ὑπερορίων στέρομαι καὶ τὰ ἔγγεια οὐ καρποῦμαι καὶ τὰ ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πέπραται, ἡδέως μὲν καθεύδω ἐκτεταμένος, πιστὸς δὲ τῇ πόλει γεγένημαι, οὐκέτι δὲ ἀπειλοῦμαι, ἀλλ᾿ ἤδη ἀπειλῶ ἄλλοις, ὡς ἐλευθέρῳ τε ἔξεστί μοι καὶ ἀποδημεῖν καὶ ἐπιδημεῖν· ὑπανίστανται δέ μοι ἤδη καὶ θάκων καὶ ὁδῶν ἐξίστανται οἱ πλούσιοι. Καὶ εἰμὶ νῦν μὲν τυράννῳ ἐοικώς, τότε δὲ σαφῶς δοῦλος ἦν· καὶ τότε μὲν ἐγὼ φόρον ἀπέφερον τῷ δήμῳ, νῦν δὲ ἡ πόλις τέλος φέρουσα τρέφει με. Well now, I will tell you how it fared with me in this same city when I was wealthy. First, I lived in daily terror lest some burglar should break into my house and steal my goods and do myself some injury. I cringed before informers.49 I was obliged to pay these people court, because I knew that I could injure them far less than they could injure me. Never-ending the claims upon my pocket which the state enforced upon me; and as to setting foot abroad, that was beyond the range of possibility. But now that I have lost my property across the frontier,50 and derive no income from my lands in Attica itself; now that my very household goods have been sold up, I stretch my legs at ease, I get a good night's rest. The distrust of my fellow-citizens has vanished; instead of trembling at threats, it is now my turn to threaten; at last I feel myself a freeman, with liberty to go abroad or stay at home as suits my fancy. The tables now are turned. It is the rich who rise to give me their seats, who stand aside and make way for me as I meet them in the streets. To-day I am like a despot, yesterday I was literally a slave; formerly it was I who had to pay my tribute51 to the sovereign people, now it is I who am supported by the state by means of general taxation.52
᾿Αλλὰ καὶ Σωκράτει, ὅτε μὲν πλούσιος ἦν, ἐλοιδόρουν με ὅτι συνῆν, νῦν δ᾿ ἐπεὶ πένης γεγένημαι, οὐκέτι οὐδὲν μέλει οὐδενί. Καὶ μὴν ὅτε μέν γε πολλὰ εἶχον, ἀεί τι ἀπέβαλλον ἢ ὑπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἢ ὑπὸ τῆς τύχης· νῦν δὲ ἀποβάλλω μὲν οὐδέν [οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔχω], ἀεὶ δέ τι λήψεσθαι ἐλπίζω. And there is another thing. So long as I was rich, they threw in my teeth as a reproach that I was friends with Socrates, but now that I am become a beggar no one troubles his head two straws about the matter. Once more, the while I rolled in plenty I had everything to lose, and, as a rule, I lost it; what the state did not exact, some mischance stole from me. But now that is over. I lose nothing, having nought to lose; but, on the contrary, I have everything to gain, and live in hope of some day getting something.53
Οὐκοῦν, ἔφη ὁ Καλλίας, καὶ εὔχῃ μηδέποτε πλουτεῖν, καὶ ἐάν τι ὄναρ ἀγαθὸν ἴδῃς, τοῖς ἀποτροπαίοις θύεις; Call. And so, of course, your one prayer is that you may never more be rich, and if you are visited by a dream of luck your one thought is to offer sacrifice to Heaven to avert misfortune.54
Μὰ Δία τοῦτο μέντοι, ἔφη, ἐγὼ οὐ ποιῶ, ἀλλὰ μάλα φιλοκινδύνως ὑπομένω, ἄν ποθέν τι ἐλπίζω λήψεσθαι. Char. No, that I do not. On the contrary, I run my head into each danger most adventurously. I endure, if haply I may see a chance of getting something from some quarter of the sky some day.
᾿Αλλ᾿ ἄγε δή, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, σὺ αὖ λέγε ἡμῖν, ὦ ᾿Αντίσθενες, πῶς οὕτω βραχέα ἔχων μέγα φρονεῖς ἐπὶ πλούτῳ. Come now (Socrates exclaimed), it lies with you, sir, you, Antisthenes, to explain to us, how it is that you, with means so scanty, make so loud a boast of wealth.
῞Οτι νομίζω, ὦ ἄνδρες, τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οὐκ ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τὸν πλοῦτον καὶ τὴν πενίαν ἔχειν ἀλλ᾿ ἐν ταῖς ψυχαῖς. ῾Ορῶ γὰρ πολλοὺς μὲν ἰδιώτας, οἳ πάνυ πολλὰ ἔχοντες χρήματα οὕτω πένεσθαι ἡγοῦνται ὥστε πάντα μὲν πόνον, πάντα δὲ κίνδυνον ὑποδύονται, ἐφ᾿ ᾧ πλείω κτήσονται, οἶδα δὲ καὶ ἀδελφούς, οἳ τὰ ἴσα λαχόντες ὁ μὲν αὐτῶν τἀρκοῦντα ἔχει καὶ περιττεύοντα τῆς δαπάνης, ὁ δὲ τοῦ παντὸς ἐνδεῖται· αἰσθάνομαι δὲ καὶ τυράννους τινάς, οἳ οὕτω πεινῶσι χρημάτων ὥστε ποιοῦσι πολὺ δεινότερα τῶν ἀπορωτάτων· δι᾿ ἔνδειαν μὲν γὰρ δήπου οἱ μὲν κλέπτουσιν, οἱ δὲ τοιχωρυχοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ ἀνδραποδίζονται· τύραννοι δ᾿ εἰσί τινες οἳ ὅλους μὲν οἴκους ἀναιροῦσιν, ἁθρόους δ᾿ ἀποκτείνουσι, πολλάκις δὲ καὶ ὅλας πόλεις χρημάτων ἕνεκα ἐξανδραποδίζονται. Τούτους μὲν οὖν ἔγωγε καὶ πάνυ οἰκτίρω τῆς ἄγαν χαλεπῆς νόσου. ὅμοια γάρ μοι δοκοῦσι πάσχειν ὥσπερ εἴ τις πολλὰ ἔχοι καὶ πολλὰ ἐσθίων μηδέποτε ἐμπίμπλαιτο. Because (he answered) I hold to the belief, sirs, that wealth and poverty do not lie in a man's estate, but in men's souls. Even in private life how many scores of people have I seen, who, although they roll in wealth, yet deem themselves so poor, there is nothing they will shrink from, neither toil nor danger, in order to add a little to their store.55 I have known two brothers,56 heirs to equal fortunes, one of whom has enough, more than enough, to cover his expenditure; the other is in absolute indigence. And so to monarchs, there are not a few, I perceive, so ravenous of wealth that they will outdo the veriest vagrants in atrocity. Want57 prompts a thousand crimes, you must admit. Why do men steal? why break burglariously into houses? why hale men and women captive and make slaves of them? Is it not from want? Nay, there are monarchs who at one fell swoop destroy whole houses, make wholesale massacre, and oftentimes reduce entire states to slavery, and all for the sake of wealth. These I must needs pity for the cruel malady which plagues them. Their condition, to my mind, resembles that poor creature's who, in spite of all he has58 and all he eats, can never stay the wolf that gnaws his vitals.
᾿Εγὼ δὲ οὕτω μὲν πολλὰ ἔχω ὡς μόλις αὐτὰ καὶ [ἐγὼ ἂν] αὐτὸς εὑρίσκω· ὅμως δὲ περίεστί μοι καὶ ἐσθίοντι ἄχρι τοῦ μὴ πεινῆν ἀφικέσθαι καὶ πίνοντι μέχρι τοῦ μὴ διψῆν καὶ ἀμφιέννυσθαι ὥστε ἔξω μὲν μηδὲν μᾶλλον Καλλίου τούτου τοῦ πλουσιωτάτου ῥιγοῦν· ἐπειδάν γε μὴν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ γένωμαι, πάνυ μὲν ἀλεεινοὶ χιτῶνες οἱ τοῖχοί μοι δοκοῦσιν εἶναι, πάνυ δὲ παχεῖαι ἐφεστρίδες οἱ ὄροφοι, στρωμνήν γε μὴν οὕτως ἀρκοῦσαν ἔχω ὥστ᾿ ἔργον μέγ᾿ ἐστὶ καὶ ἀνεγεῖραι. But as to me, my riches are so plentiful I cannot lay my hands on them myself;59 yet for all that I have enough to eat till my hunger is stayed, to drink till my thirst is sated;60 to clothe myself withal; and out of doors not Callias there, with all his riches, is more safe than I from shivering; and when I find myself indoors, what warmer shirting61 do I need than my bare walls? what ampler greatcoat than the tiles above my head? these seem to suit me well enough; and as to bedclothes, I am not so ill supplied but it is a business to arouse me in the morning.
ἂν δέ ποτε καὶ ἀφροδισιάσαι τὸ σῶμά μου δεηθῇ, οὕτω μοι τὸ παρὸν ἀρκεῖ ὥστε αἷς ἂν προσέλθω ὑπερασπάζονταί με διὰ τὸ μηδένα ἄλλον αὐταῖς ἐθέλειν προσιέναι. And as to sexual desire, my body's need is satisfied by what comes first to hand. Indeed, there is no lack of warmth in the caress which greets me, just because it is unsought by others.62
Καὶ πάντα τοίνυν ταῦτα οὕτως ἡδέα μοι δοκεῖ εἶναι ὡς μᾶλλον μὲν ἥδεσθαι ποιῶν ἕκαστα αὐτῶν οὐκ ἂν εὐξαίμην, ἧττον δέ· οὕτω μοι δοκεῖ ἔνια αὐτῶν ἡδίω εἶναι τοῦ συμφέροντος. Well then, these several pleasures I enjoy so fully that I am much more apt to pray for less than more of them, so strongly do I feel that some of them are sweeter than what is good for one or profitable.
Πλείστου δ᾿ ἄξιον κτῆμα ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ πλούτῳ λογίζομαι εἶναι ἐκεῖνο, ὅτι εἴ μού τις καὶ τὰ νῦν ὄντα παρέλοιτο, οὐδὲν οὕτως ὁρῶ φαῦλον ἔργον ὁποῖον οὐκ ἀρκοῦσαν ἂν τροφὴν ἐμοὶ παρέχοι. Καὶ γὰρ ὅταν ἡδυπαθῆσαι βουληθῶ, οὐκ ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς τὰ τίμια ὠνοῦμαι [πολυτελῆ γὰρ γίγνεται], ἀλλ᾿ ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς ταμιεύομαι. Καὶ πολὺ πλέον διαφέρει πρὸς ἡδονήν, ὅταν ἀναμείνας τὸ δεηθῆναι προσφέρωμαι ἢ ὅταν τινὶ τῶν τιμίων χρῶμαι, ὥσπερ καὶ νῦν τῷδε τῷ Θασίῳ οἴνῳ ἐντυχὼν οὐ διψῶν πίνω αὐτόν. ᾿Αλλὰ μὴν καὶ πολὺ δικαιοτέρους γε εἰκὸς εἶναι τοὺς εὐτέλειαν μᾶλλον ἢ πολυχρηματίαν σκοποῦντας. Οἷς γὰρ μάλιστα τὰ παρόντα ἀρκεῖ ἥκιστα τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ὀρέγονται. But of all the precious things in my possession, I reckon this the choicest, that were I robbed of my whole present stock, there is no work so mean, but it would amply serve me to furnish me with sustenance. Why, look you, whenever I desire to fare delicately, I have not to purchase precious viands in the market, which becomes expensive, but I open the storehouse of my soul, and dole them out.63 Indeed, as far as pleasure goes, I find it better to await desire before I suffer meat or drink to pass my lips, than to have recourse to any of your costly viands, as, for instance, now, when I have chanced on this fine Thasian wine,64 and sip it without thirst. But indeed, the man who makes frugality, not wealth of worldly goods, his aim, is on the face of it a much more upright person. And why?-- the man who is content with what he has will least of all be prone to clutch at what is his neighbour's.
ἄξιον δ᾿ ἐννοῆσαι ὡς καὶ ἐλευθερίους ὁ τοιοῦτος πλοῦτος παρέχεται. Σωκράτης τε γὰρ οὗτος παρ᾿ οὗ ἐγὼ τοῦτον ἐκτησάμην οὔτ᾿ ἀριθμῷ οὔτε σταθμῷ ἐπήρκει μοι, ἀλλ᾿ ὁπόσον ἐδυνάμην φέρεσθαι, τοσοῦτόν μοι παρεδίδου· ἐγώ τε νῦν οὐδενὶ φθονῶ, ἀλλὰ πᾶσι τοῖς φίλοις καὶ ἐπιδεικνύω τὴν ἀφθονίαν καὶ μεταδίδωμι τῷ βουλομένῳ τοῦ ἐν τῇ ἐμῇ ψυχῇ πλούτου. Καὶ μὴν καὶ τὸ ἁβρότατόν γε κτῆμα, τὴν σχολὴν ἀεὶ ὁρᾶτέ μοι παροῦσαν, ὥστε καὶ θεᾶσθαι τὰ ἀξιοθέατα καὶ ἀκούειν τὰ ἀξιάκουστα καὶ ὃ πλείστου ἐγὼ τιμῶμαι, Σωκράτει σχολάζων συνδιημερεύειν. Καὶ οὗτος δὲ οὐ τοὺς πλεῖστον ἀριθμοῦντας χρυσίον θαυμάζει, ἀλλ᾿ οἳ ἂν αὐτῷ ἀρέσκωσι τούτοις συνὼν διατελεῖ. And here's a point worth noting. Wealth of my sort will make you liberal of soul. Look at Socrates; from him it was I got these riches. He did not supply me with it by weight or by measure, but just as much as I could carry, he with bounteous hand consigned to me. And I, too, grudge it to no man now. To all my friends without distinction I am ready to display my opulence: come one, come all; and whosoever likes to take a share is welcome to the wealth that lies within my soul. Yes, and moreover, that most luxurious of possessions,65 unbroken leisure, you can see, is mine, which leaves me free to contemplate things worthy of contemplation,66 and to drink in with my ears all charming sounds. And what I value most, freedom to spend whole days in pure scholastic intercourse67 with Socrates, to whom I am devoted.68 And he, on his side, is not the person to admire those whose tale of gold and silver happens to be the largest, but those who are well-pleasing to him he chooses for companions, and will consort with to the end.
Οὗτος μὲν οὖν οὕτως εἶπεν. ῾Ο δὲ Καλλίας, Νὴ τὴν ῞Ηραν, ἔφη, τά τε ἄλλα ζηλῶ σε τοῦ πλούτου καὶ ὅτι οὔτε ἡ πόλις σοι ἐπιτάττουσα ὡς δούλῳ χρῆται οὔτε οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ἂν μὴ δανείσῃς, ὀργίζονται. With these words the speaker ended, and Callias exclaimed:

By Hera, I envy you your wealth, Antisthenes, firstly, because the state does not lay burthens on you and treat you like a slave; and secondly, people do not fall into a rage with you when you refuse to be their creditor.
᾿Αλλὰ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Νικήρατος, μὴ ζήλου· ἐγὼ γὰρ ἥξω παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ δανεισάμενος τὸ μηδενὸς προσδεῖσθαι, οὕτω πεπαιδευμένος ὑπὸ ῾Ομήρου ἀριθμεῖν ἕπτ᾿ ἀπύρους τρίποδας, δέκα δὲ χρυσοῖο τάλαντα, αἴθωνας δὲ λέβητας ἐείκοσι, δώδεκα δ᾿ ἵππους σταθμῷ καὶ ἀριθμῷ, ὡς πλείστου πλούτου ἐπιθυμῶν οὐ παύομαι· ἐξ ὧν ἴσως καὶ φιλοχρηματώτερός τισι δοκῶ εἶναι. You may stay your envy (interposed Niceratus), I shall presently present myself to borrow of him this same key of his to independence.69 Trained as I am to cast up figures by my master Homer--

Seven tripods, which ne'er felt the fire, and of gold ten talents

And burnished braziers twenty, and horses twelve--70

by weight and measure duly reckoned,71 I cannot stay my craving for enormous wealth. And that's the reason certain people, I daresay, imagine I am inordinately fond of riches.
ἔνθα δὴ ἀνεγέλασαν ἅπαντες, νομίζοντες τὰ ὄντα εἰρηκέναι αὐτόν. The remark drew forth a peal of laughter from the company, who thought the speaker hit the truth exactly.
᾿Εκ τούτου εἶπέ τις· Σὸν ἔργον, ὦ ῾Ερμόγενες, λέγειν τε τοὺς φίλους οἵτινές εἰσι καὶ ἐπιδεικνύναι ὡς μέγα τε δύνανται καὶ σοῦ ἐπιμέλονται, ἵνα δοκῇς δικαίως ἐπ᾿ αὐτοῖς μέγα φρονεῖν. Then some one: It lies with you, Hermogenes, to tell us who your friends are; and next, to demonstrate the greatness of their power and their care for you, if you would prove to us your right to pride yoruself on them.
Οὐκοῦν ὡς μὲν καὶ ῞Ελληνες καὶ βάρβαροι τοὺς θεοὺς ἡγοῦνται πάντα εἰδέναι τά τε ὄντα καὶ τὰ μέλλοντα εὔδηλον. Πᾶσαι γοῦν αἱ πόλεις καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη διὰ μαντικῆς ἐπερωτῶσι τοὺς θεοὺς τί τε χρὴ καὶ τί οὐ χρὴ ποιεῖν. Καὶ μὴν ὅτι νομίζομέν γε δύνασθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ εὖ καὶ κακῶς ποιεῖν καὶ τοῦτο σαφές. Πάντες γοῦν αἰτοῦνται τοὺς θεοὺς τὰ μὲν φαῦλα ἀποτρέπειν, τἀγαθὰ δὲ διδόναι. Οὗτοι τοίνυν οἱ πάντα μὲν εἰδότες πάντα δὲ δυνάμενοι θεοὶ οὕτω μοι φίλοι εἰσὶν ὥστε διὰ τὸ ἐπιμελεῖσθαί μου οὔποτε λήθω αὐτοὺς οὔτε νυκτὸς οὔθ᾿ ἡμέρας οὔθ᾿ ὅποι ἂν ὁρμῶμαι οὔθ᾿ ὅ τι ἂν μέλλω πράττειν. Διὰ δὲ τὸ προειδέναι καὶ ὅ τι ἐξ ἑκάστου ἀποβήσεται σημαίνουσί μοι πέμποντες ἀγγέλους φήμας καὶ ἐνύπνια καὶ οἰωνοὺς ἅ τε δεῖ καὶ ἃ οὐ χρὴ ποιεῖν, οἷς ἐγὼ ὅταν μὲν πείθωμαι, οὐδέποτέ μοι μεταμέλει· ἤδη δέ ποτε καὶ ἀπιστήσας ἐκολάσθην. Herm. That the gods know all things, that the present and the future lie before their eyes, are tenets held by Hellenes and barbarians alike. This is obvious; or else, why do states and nations, one and all, inquire of the gods by divination what they ought to do and what they ought not? This also is apparent, that we believe them able to do us good and to do us harm; or why do all men pray to Heaven to avert the evil and bestow the good? Well then, my boast is that these gods, who know and can do all things,72 deign to be my friends; so that, by reason of their care for me, I can never escape from their sight,73 neither by night nor by day, whithersoever I essay to go, whatsoever I take in hand to do.74 But because they know beforehand the end and issue of each event, they give me signals, sending messengers, be it some voice,75 or vision of the night, with omens of the solitary bird, which tell me what I should and what I should not do. When I listen to their warnings all goes well with me, I have no reason to repent; but if, as ere now has been the case, I have been disobedient, chastisement has overtaken me.
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης εἶπεν· ᾿Αλλὰ τούτων μὲν οὐδὲν ἄπιστον. ᾿Εκεῖνο μέντοι ἔγωγε ἡδέως ἂν πυθοίμην, πῶς αὐτοὺς θεραπεύων οὕτω φίλους ἔχεις. Then Socrates: All this I well believe,76 but there is one thing I would gladly learn of you: What service do you pay the gods, so to secure their friendship?
Ναὶ μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ ῾Ερμογένης, καὶ μάλα εὐτελῶς. ᾿Επαινῶ τε γὰρ αὐτοὺς οὐδὲν δαπανῶν, ὧν τε διδόασιν ἀεὶ αὖ παρέχομαι, εὐφημῶ τε ὅσα ἂν δύνωμαι καὶ ἐφ᾿ οἷς ἂν αὐτοὺς μάρτυρας ποιήσωμαι ἑκὼν οὐδὲν ψεύδομαι. Truly it is not a ruinous service, Socrates (he answered)--far from it. I give them thanks, which is not costly. I make return to them of all they give to me from time to time. I speak well of them, with all the strength I have. And whenever I take their sacred names to witness, I do not wittingly falsify my word.
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, εἰ ἄρα τοιοῦτος ὢν φίλους αὐτοὺς ἔχεις, καὶ οἱ θεοί, ὡς ἔοικε, καλοκἀγαθίᾳ ἥδονται. Οὗτος μὲν δὴ ὁ λόγος οὕτως ἐσπουδαιολογήθη. Then God be praised (said Socrates), if being what you are, you have such friends; the gods themselves, it would appear, delight in nobleness of soul.77

Thus, in solemn sort, the theme was handled, thus gravely ended.
᾿Επειδὴ δὲ εἰς τὸν Φίλιππον ἧκον, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν τί ὁρῶν ἐν τῇ γελωτοποιίᾳ μέγα ἐπ᾿ αὐτῇ φρονοίη. But now it was the jester's turn, and so they fell to asking him:78 What could he see to pride himself upon so vastly in the art of making people laugh?
Οὐ γὰρ ἄξιον, ἔφη, ὁπότε γε πάντες εἰδότες ὅτι γελωτοποιός εἰμι, ὅταν μέν τι ἀγαθὸν ἔχωσι, παρακαλοῦσί με ἐπὶ ταῦτα προθύμως, ὅταν δέ τι κακὸν λάβωσι, φεύγουσιν ἀμεταστρεπτί, φοβούμενοι μὴ καὶ ἄκοντες γελάσωσι; Surely I have good reason (he replied). The whole world knows my business is to set them laughing, so when they are in luck's way, they eagerly invite me to a share of it; but if ill betide them, helter- skelter off they go, and never once turn back,79 so fearful are they I may set them laughing will he nill he.
Καὶ ὁ Νικήρατος εἶπε· Νὴ Δία, σὺ τοίνυν δικαίως μέγα φρονεῖς. ᾿Εμοὶ γὰρ αὖ τῶν φίλων οἱ μὲν εὖ πράττοντες ἐκποδὼν ἀπέρχονται, οἳ δ᾿ ἂν κακόν τι λάβωσι, γενεαλογοῦσι τὴν συγγένειαν καὶ οὐδέποτέ μου ἀπολείπονται. Nic. Heavens! you have good reason to be proud; with me it is just the opposite. When any of my friends are doing well, they take good care to turn their backs on me,80 but if ever it goes ill with them, they claim relationship by birth,81 and will not let their long-lost cousin out of sight.
Εἶεν· σὺ δὲ δή, ἔφη ὁ Χαρμίδης, ὦ Συρακόσιε, ἐπὶ τῷ μέγα φρονεῖς; ἢ δῆλον ὅτι ἐπὶ τῷ παιδί; Charm. Well, well! and you, sir (turning to the Syracusan), what do you pride yourself upon? No doubt, upon the boy?
Μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐ μὲν δή·ἀλλὰ καὶ δέδοικα περὶ αὐτοῦ ἰσχυρῶς. Αἰσθάνομαι γάρ τινας ἐπιβουλεύοντας διαφθεῖραι αὐτόν. The Syr. Not I, indeed; I am terribly afraid concerning him. It is plain enough to me that certain people are contriving for his ruin.82
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης ἀκούσας, ῾Ηράκλεις, ἔφη, τί τοσοῦτον νομίζοντες ἠδικῆσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ σοῦ παιδὸς ὥστε ἀποκτεῖναι αὐτὸν βούλεσθαι; Good gracious!83 (Socrates exclaimed, when he heard that), what crime can they conceive your boy is guilty of that they should wish to make an end of him?
᾿Αλλ᾿ οὔτοι, ἔφη, ἀποκτεῖναι βούλονται, ἀλλὰ πεῖσαι αὐτὸν συγκαθεύδειν αὐτοῖς. The Syr. I do not say they want to murder him, but wheedle him away with bribes to pass his nights with them.
Σὺ δ᾿, ὡς ἔοικας, εἰ τοῦτο γένοιτο, νομίζεις ἂν διαφθαρῆναι αὐτόν; Soc. And if that happened, you on your side, it appears, believe the boy will be corrupted?
Ναὶ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, παντάπασί γε. The Syr. Beyond all shadow of a doubt, most villainously.
Οὐδ᾿ αὐτὸς ἄρ᾿, ἔφη, συγκαθεύδεις αὐτῷ; Soc. And you, of course, you never dream of such a thing. You don't spend nights with him?
Νὴ Δί᾿ ὅλας γε καὶ πάσας τὰς νύκτας. The Syr. Of course I do, all night and every night.
Νὴ τὴν ῞Ηραν, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, εὐτύχημά γέ σου μέγα τὸ τὸν χρῶτα τοιοῦτον φῦναι ἔχοντα ὥστε μόνον μὴ διαφθείρειν τοὺς συγκαθεύδοντας. ὥστε σοί γε εἰ μὴ ἐπ᾿ ἄλλῳ ἀλλ᾿ ἐπὶ τῷ χρωτὶ ἄξιον μέγα φρονεῖν. Soc. By Hera, what a mighty piece of luck84 for you--to be so happily compounded, of such flesh and blood. You alone can't injure those who sleep beside you. You have every right, it seems, to boast of your own flesh, if nothing else.
᾿Αλλὰ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐκ ἐπὶ τούτῳ μέγα φρονῶ. The Syr. Nay, in sooth, it is not on that I pride myself.
᾿Αλλ᾿ ἐπὶ τῷ μήν; Soc. Well, on what then?
᾿Επὶ νὴ Δία τοῖς ἄφροσιν. Οὗτοι γὰρ τὰ ἐμὰ νευρόσπαστα θεώμενοι τρέφουσί με. The Syr. Why, on the silly fools who come and see my puppet show.85I live on them.
Ταῦτ᾿ ἄρ᾿, ἔφη ὁ Φίλιππος, καὶ πρῴην ἐγώ σου ἤκουον εὐχομένου πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς ὅπου ἂν ᾖς διδόναι καρποῦ μὲν ἀφθονίαν, φρενῶν δὲ ἀφορίαν. Phil. Ah yes! and that explains how the other day I heard you praying to the gods to grant you, wheresoe'er you chance to be, great store of corn and wine, but dearth of wits.86
Εἶεν, ἔφη ὁ Καλλίας· σὺ δὲ δή, ὦ Σώκρατες, τί ἔχεις εἰπεῖν ὡς ἄξιόν σοί ἐστι μέγα φρονεῖν ἐφ᾿ ᾗ εἶπας οὕτως ἀδόξῳ οὔσῃ τέχνῃ; Pass on (said Callias); now it is your turn, Socrates. What have you to say to justify your choice? How can you boast of so discredited an art?87
Καὶ ὃς εἶπεν· ῾Ομολογησώμεθα πρῶτον ποῖά ἐστιν ἔργα τοῦ μαστροποῦ· καὶ ὅσα ἂν ἐρωτῶ, μὴ ὀκνεῖτε ἀποκρίνεσθαι, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ὅσα ἂν συνομολογῶμεν. Καὶ ὑμῖν οὕτω δοκεῖ; ἔφη. He answered: Let us first decide88 what are the duties of the good go-between;89 and please to answer every question without hesitating; let us know the points to which we mutually assent.90 Are you agreed to that?
Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, ἔφασαν. ὡς δ᾿ ἅπαξ εἶπαν Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, τοῦτο πάντες ἐκ τοῦ λοιποῦ ἀπεκρίναντο. The Company, in chorus. Without a doubt (they answered, and the formula, once started, was every time repeated by the company, full chorus).
Οὐκοῦν ἀγαθοῦ μέν, ἔφη, ὑμῖν δοκεῖ μαστροποῦ ἔργον εἶναι ἣν ἂν ἢ ὃν ἂν μαστροπεύῃ ἀρέσκοντα τοῦτον ἀποδεικνύναι οἷς ἂν συνῇ; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, ἔφασαν. Soc. Are you agreed it is the business of a good go-between to make him (or her) on whom he plies his art agreeable to those with them?91
Omnes. Without a doubt.
Οὐκοῦν ἓν μέν τί ἐστιν εἰς τὸ ἀρέσκειν ἐκ τοῦ πρέπουσαν ἔχειν σχέσιν καὶ τριχῶν καὶ ἐσθῆτος; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, ἔφασαν. Soc. And, further, that towards agreeableness, one step at any rate consists in wearing a becoming fashion of the hair and dress?92 Are you agreed to that?

Omnes. Without a doubt.
Οὐκοῦν καὶ τόδε ἐπιστάμεθα, ὅτι ἔστιν ἀνθρώπῳ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ὄμμασι καὶ φιλικῶς καὶ ἐχθρῶς πρός τινας βλέπειν; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Soc. And we know for certain, that with the same eyes a man may dart a look of love or else of hate93 on those he sees. Are you agreed?

Omnes. Without a doubt.
Τί δέ, τῇ αὐτῇ φωνῇ ἔστι καὶ αἰδημόνως καὶ θρασέως φθέγγεσθαι; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Soc. Well! and with the same tongue and lips and voice may speak with modesty or boastfulnes?

Omnes. Without a doubt.
Τί δέ, λόγοι οὐκ εἰσὶ μέν τινες ἀπεχθανόμενοι, εἰσὶ δέ τινες οἳ πρὸς φιλίαν ἄγουσι; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Soc. And there are words that bear the stamp of hate, and words that tend to friendliness?94

Omnes. Without a doubt.
Οὐκοῦν τούτων ὁ ἀγαθὸς μαστροπὸς τὰ συμφέροντα εἰς τὸ ἀρέσκειν διδάσκοι ἄν; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Soc. The good go-between will therefore make his choice between them, and teach only what conduces to agreeableness?

Omnes. Without a doubt.
᾿Αμείνων δ᾿ ἂν εἴη, ἔφη, ὁ ἑνὶ δυνάμενος ἀρεστοὺς ποιεῖν ἢ ὅστις καὶ πολλοῖς; ἐνταῦθα μέντοι ἐσχίσθησαν, καὶ οἱ μὲν εἶπον Δῆλον ὅτι ὅστις πλείστοις, οἱ δὲ Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Soc. And is he the better go-between who can make his clients pleasing to one person only, or can make them pleasing to a number?95

The company was here divided; the one half answered, "Yes, of course, the largest number," whilst the others still maintained, "Without a doubt."
῾Ο δ᾿ εἰπὼν ὅτι καὶ τοῦτο ὁμολογεῖται ἔφη· Εἰ δέ τις καὶ ὅλῃ τῇ πόλει ἀρέσκοντας δύναιτο ἀποδεικνύναι, οὐχ οὗτος παντελῶς ἂν ἤδη ἀγαθὸς μαστροπὸς εἴη; Σαφῶς γε νὴ Δία, πάντες εἶπον. And Socrates, remarking, "That proposition is agreed to also," thus proceeded: And if further he were able to make them pleasing to the whole community, should we not have found in this accomplished person an arch-go-between?

Clearly so (they answered with one voice).
Οὐκοῦν εἴ τις τοιούτους δύναιτο ἐξεργάζεσθαι ὧν προστατοίη, δικαίως ἂν μέγα φρονοίη ἐπὶ τῇ τέχνῃ καὶ δικαίως ἂν πολὺν μισθὸν λαμβάνοι; ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ ταῦτα πάντες συνωμολόγουν, Τοιοῦτος μέντοι, ἔφη, μοι δοκεῖ ᾿Αντισθένης εἶναι οὗτος. Soc. If then a man had power to make his clients altogether pleasing; that man, I say, might justly pride himself upon his art, and should by rights receive a large reward?96

And when these propositions were agreed to also, he turned about and said: Just such a man, I take it, is before you in the person of Antisthenes!97
Καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης, ᾿Εμοί, ἔφη, παραδίδως, ὦ Σώκρατες, τὴν τέχνην; Whereupon Antisthenes exclaimed: What! are you going to pass on the business? will you devolve this art of yours on me as your successor, Socrates?98
Ναὶ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη. ῾Ορῶ γάρ σε καὶ τὴν ἀκόλουθον ταύτης πάνυ ἐξειργασμένον. I will, upon my word, I will (he answered): since I see that you have practised to some purpose, nay elaborated, an art which is the handmaid to this other.
Τίνα ταύτην; Τὴν προαγωγείαν, ἔφη. Καὶ ὃς μάλα ἀχθεσθεὶς ἐπήρετο· Καὶ τί μοι σύνοισθα, ὦ Σώκρατες, τοιοῦτον εἰργασμένῳ; And what may that be? asked Antisthenes.

Soc. The art of the procurer.99

The other (in a tone of deep vexation): Pray, what thing of the sort are you aware I ever perpetrated?
Οἶδα μέν, ἔφη, σε Καλλίαν τουτονὶ προαγωγεύσαντα τῷ σοφῷ Προδίκῳ, ὅτε ἑώρας τοῦτον μὲν φιλοσοφίας ἐρῶντα, ἐκεῖνον δὲ χρημάτων δεόμενον· οἶδα δέ σε ῾Ιππίᾳ τῷ ᾿Ηλείῳ, παρ᾿ οὗ οὗτος καὶ τὸ μνημονικὸν ἔμαθεν· ἀφ᾿ οὗ δὴ καὶ ἐρωτικώτερος γεγένηται διὰ τὸ ὅ τι ἂν καλὸν ἴδῃ μηδέποτε ἐπιλανθάνεσθαι. ἔναγχος δὲ δήπου καὶ πρὸς ἐμὲ ἐπαινῶν τὸν ῾Ηρακλεώτην ξένον ἐπεί με ἐποίησας ἐπιθυμεῖν αὐτοῦ, συνέστησάς μοι αὐτόν. Καὶ χάριν μέντοι σοι ἔχω· πάνυ γὰρ καλὸς κἀγαθὸς δοκεῖ μοι εἶναι. Αἰσχύλον δὲ τὸν Φλειάσιον πρὸς ἐμὲ ἐπαινῶν καὶ ἐμὲ πρὸς ἐκεῖνον οὐχ οὕτω διέθηκας ὥστε διὰ τοὺς σοὺς λόγους ἐρῶντες ἐκυνοδρομοῦμεν ἀλλήλους ζητοῦντες; Soc. I am aware that it was you who introduced our host here, Callias, to that wise man Prodicus;100 they were a match, you saw, the one enamoured of philosophy, and the other in need of money. It was you again, I am well enough aware, who introduced him once again to Hippias101 of Elis, from whom he learnt his "art of memory";102 since which time he has become a very ardent lover,103 from inability to forget each lovely thing he sets his eyes on. And quite lately, if I am not mistaken, it was you who sounded in my ears such praise of our visitor from Heraclea,104 that first you made me thirst for his society, and then united us.105 For which indeed I am your debtor, since I find him a fine handsome fellow and true gentleman.106 And did you not, moreover, sing the praises of Aeschylus of Phlius107 in my ears and mine in his?--in fact, affected us so much by what you said, we fell in love and took to coursing wildly in pursuit of one another like two dogs upon a trail.108
Ταῦτα οὖν ὁρῶν δυνάμενόν σε ποιεῖν ἀγαθὸν νομίζω προαγωγὸν εἶναι. ῾Ο γὰρ οἷός τε ὢν γιγνώσκειν τε τοὺς ὠφελίμους αὑτοῖς καὶ τούτους δυνάμενος ποιεῖν ἐπιθυμεῖν ἀλλήλων, οὗτος ἄν μοι δοκεῖ καὶ πόλεις δύνασθαι φίλας ποιεῖν καὶ γάμους ἐπιτηδείους συνάγειν, καὶ πολλοῦ ἂν ἄξιος εἶναι καὶ πόλεσι καὶ φίλοις καὶ συμμάχοισ κεκτῆσθαι. Σὺ δὲ ὡς κακῶς ἀκούσας ὅτι ἀγαθόν σε ἔφην προαγωγὸν εἶναι, ὠργίσθης. With such examples of your wonder-working skill before my eyes, I must suppose you are a first-rate matchmaker. For consider, a man with insight to discern two natures made to be of service to each other, and with power to make these same two people mutually enamoured! That is the sort of man, I take it, who should weld together states in friendship; cement alliances with gain to the contracting parties;109 and, in general, be found an acquisition to those several states; to friends and intimates, and partisans in war, a treasure worth possessing.110 But you, my friend, you got quite angry. One would suppose I had given you an evil name in calling you a first-rate matchmaker.
᾿Αλλὰ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐ νῦν. ᾿Εὰν γὰρ ταῦτα δύνωμαι, σεσαγμένος δὴ παντάπασι πλούτου τὴν ψυχὴν ἔσομαι.

Καὶ αὕτη μὲν δὴ ἡ περίοδος τῶν λόγων ἀπετελέσθη.
Yes (he answered meekly), but now I am calm. It is clear enough, if I possess these powers I shall find myself surcharged with spiritual riches.

In this fashion the cycle of the speeches was completed.111
<< Βιβλίον Γ Αρχή Σελίδας Βιβλίον Ε >>

[1] {to to dikaion}; cf. "Mem." IV. iv.

[2] Or, "pockets."

[3] "Professor of wisdom."

[4] Or, "the coup de grace."

[5] Or, "so ended fytte the first of the word-controversy."

[6] Or, "his creations are all but coextensive with every mortal thing."

[7] Some modern critics (e.g. F. Dummler, "Antisthenica," p. 29 foll.) maintain plausibly that the author is here glancing (as also Plato in the "Ion") at Antisthenes' own treatises against the Rhapsodists and on a more correct interpretation of Homer, {peri exegeton} and {peri 'Omerou}.

[8] Or, "Have you the knowledge also how to play the king?"

[9] "Il." iii. 179. See "Mem." III. ii. 2.

[10] "Il." xxiii. 335; Plat. "Ion," 537.

[11] Lit. "yield him the reins with his hands."

[12] "Il." xi.630: "And set out a leek savourer of drink" (Purves). Plat. "Ion," 538 C.

[13] "My culinary skill."

[14] See Shakesp. "Much Ado," v. 2. 51 foll.; "Mids. N. D." iv. 2.

[15] Lit. "I warrent you! (quoth Socrates) and there's another funny notion we have every chance of getting fathered on us."

[16] Or, "and had a most hilarious and herbaceous time."

[17] Cf. Aristoph. "Knights," 494:

Chorus. And here's the garlic. Swallow it down!
Sausage Seller. . . . What for?
Chorus. It will prime you up and make you fight the better.

H. Frere.

[18] "We are concerned less with the lists of battle than of love"; "we meditate no furious close of battle but of lips." Lit. "how we shall kiss some one rather than do battle with."

[19] See "Hellenica Essays," p. 353.

[20] Or, "beautiful and good."

[21] Or, "whose fair face draws me." Was Cleinias there as a "muta persona"? Hardly, in spite of {nun}. It is the image of him which is present to the mind's eye.

[22] Lit. "being beautiful"; but there is a touch of bombast infused into the speech by the artist. Cf. the speech of Callias ("Hell." VI. iii. 3) and, for the humour, "Cyrop." passim.

[23] See Cobet, "Pros. Xen." p. 59. Cf. "Mem." I. iii. 8.

[24] Or, "for that they reveal his splendour to me."

[25] "We beauties."

[26] The {eispnelas} in relation to the {aitas}, the Inspirer to the Hearer. Cf. Theocr. xii. 13; Ael. "V. H." iii. 12. See Muller, "Dorians," ii. 300 foll.

[27] {philokaloterous}. Cf. Plat. "Phaedr." 248 D; "Criti." 111 E; Aristot. "Eth. N." iv. 4. 4; x. 9. 3.

[28] Lit. "they feel most awe of what they most desire."

[29] Cf. "Mem." I. iii. 9.

[30] Cf. ib. III. iii. 12.

[31] Cf. Aristoph. "Wasps," 544.

[32] Or, "beauty steps in attendance lovingly hand in hand at every season of the life of man." So Walt Whitman, passim.

[33] The MSS. add ["to whom, be it noted, Socrates indeed bore a marked resemblance"]. Obviously a gloss. Cf. Aristoph. "Clouds," 224; Plat. "Symp." 215 B.

[34] Lit. "the arguments proposed have gone the round."

[35] i.e. "the boy and girl." Al. "the present company, who are so eager to bestow on you their kisses."

[36] Lit. "creeping down beside his ears." Cf. "Od." xi. 319:

{prin sphoin upo krotaphoisin ioulous
anthesai pukasai te genus euanthei lakhne.}

"(Zeus destroyed the twain) ere the curls had bloomed beneath their temples, and darked their chins with the blossom of youth." --Butcher and Lang. Cf. Theocr. xv. 85: {praton ioulon apo krotaphon kataballon}, "with the first down upon his cheeks" (Lang); Aesch. "Theb." 534.

[37] {pros to opisthen}, perhaps = "ad posteriorem capitis partem," which would be more applicable to Critobulus, whose whiskers were just beginning to grow, than to Callias. Possibly we should read (after Pollux, ii. 10) {peri ten upenen}, "on the upper lip." See Plat. "Protag." 309 B; "Il." xxiv. 348; "Od." x. 279.

[38] Cf. Pind. "Pyth." x. 75.

[39] See "Cyrop." I. iv. 28; Shakesp. "Ven. and Ad." 89: "But when her lips were ready for his pay, he winks, and turns his lips another way."

[40] Or, "a kiss which is to passion as dry combustious matter is to fire," Shakesp. ib. 1162.

[41] Or, "is namesake of the love within the soul of lovers." The whole passage, involving a play on the words {philein phileisthai}, "where kisses rain without, love reigns within," is probably to be regarded as a gloss. Cf. "Mem." I. iii. 13.

[42] Cf. "Mem." I. iii. 8-14.

[43] Cf. Plat. "Crit." 46 D; "Hell." IV. iv. 17; Arist. "Birds," 1245.

[44] "Grammarian's." Plat. "Protag." 312 B; 326 D; Dem. 315. 8.

[45] Like Hermia and Helena, "Mids. N. D." iii. 2. 208.

[46] Reading {knisma}, "scratching." Plat. "Hipp. maj." 304 A. Al. {knesma}.

[47] See Jebb, "Theophr. Ch." xxiv. 16.

[48] Zeune, cf. "Cyrop." VIII. iii. 35-50.

[49] "And police agents."

[50] Cf. "Mem." II. viii. 1.

[51] {phoros}, tributum. Al. "property-tax." Cf. "Econ." ii. 6.

[52] {telos}, vectigal. Sturz, "Lex. Xen." s.v. Cf. "Pol. Ath." i. 3.

[53] "I feed on the pleasures of hope, and fortune in the future."

[54] Or, "you wake up in a fright, and offer sacrifice to the 'Averters.'" For {tois apotropaiois} see Aristoph. "Plutus," 359; Plat. "Laws," 854 B; "Hell." III. iii. 4.

[55] Cf. "Cyrop." VIII. ii. 21; Hor. "Epist." i. 2. 26, "semper avarus eget."

[56] Is Antisthenes thinking of Callias and Hermogenes? (presuming these are sons of Hipponicus and brothers). Cf. "Mem." II. x. 3.

[57] Or, "'Tis want that does it." See "Pol. Ath." i. 5; "Rev," i. 1.

[58] Reading {ekhon}, or if {pinon}, transl. "who eats and drinks, but never sates himself."

[59] "That I can scarce discover any portion of it." Zeune cf. "Econ." viii. 2.

[60] So "the master" himself. See "Mem." I. ii. 1, vi. 5.

[61] Cf. Aristot. "Pol." ii. 8. 1, of Hippodamus.

[62] Cf. "Mem." I. iii. 14, the germ of cynicism and stoicism, the Socratic {XS} form of "better to marry than to burn."

[63] Or, "turn to the storehouse of a healthy appetite." See "Apol." 18, the same sentiment "ex ore Socratis."

[64] See Athen. "Deipnos." i. 28.

[65] See Eur. "Ion," 601. Lit. "at every moment I command it."

[66] "To gaze upon all fairest shows (like a spectator in the theatre), and to drink in sounds most delectable." So Walt Whitman.

[67] Aristot. "Rhet." ii. 4. 12; "Eth. N." ix. 4. 9.

[68] See "Mem." III. xi. 17.

[69] Or, "his want-for-nothing," or, "supply-all."

[70] Niceratus quotes "Il." ix. 122, 123, 263, 264.

[71] Or, "by number and by measure," "so much apiece, so much a pound," in reference to Antisthenes' remark that Socrates does not stint his "good things."

[72] Cf. "Mem." I. i. 19; I. iv. 18.

[73] Schneid. cf. Hom. "Il." x. 279, {oude se letho kinomenos}, "nor doth any motion of mine escape thee" (A. Lang); and see Arrian, "Epictet." i. 12. 3.

[74] Cf. Ps. cxxxix. "Domine probasti."

[75] See "Mem." I. i. 3; "Apol." xii. 13; "Cyrop." VIII. vii. 3.

[76] Lit. "Nay, nought of the things you tell us is incredible, but . . ."

[77] {kalokagathia}, "beautiful and gentle manhood."

[78] Lit. "now that they had come to Philippus (in the 'period' of discussion), they . . ." Or read, after Hartman, "An. Xen." p. 242, {eken} (sc. {o logos}).

[79] Plat. "Rep." 620 E; "Laws," 854 C.

[80] Or, "they take good care to get out of my way," "they hold aloof from me entirely."

[81] Or, "produce the family-pedigree and claim me for a cousin." Cf. Lucian v., "Tim." 49; Ter. "Phorm." ii. 33, 45.

[82] {diaphtheirai} = (1) to destroy, make away with; (2) to ruin and corrupt, seduce by bribes or otherwise.

[83] Lit. "Heracles!" "Zounds!"

[84] Cf. Plat. "Symp." 217 A.

[85] "My marionettes." Cf. Herod. ii. 48; Lucian lxxii., "De Syr. d." 16; Aristot. "de Mund." 6.

[86] Or, "of fruits abundance, but of wits a famine." Cf. Plat. "Rep." 546 A. His prayer resembles that of the thievish trader in Ovid, "Fast." v. 675 foll., "Grant me to-day my daily . . . fraud!" but in spite of himself (like Dogberry), he seems to pray to the gods to "write him down an ass"!

[87] Sc. "the hold-door trade."

[88] Or, "define in common." Cf. "Mem." IV. vi. 15.

[89] Or, "man-praiser." Cf. "The Manx Witch," p. 47 (T. E. Brown), "And Harry, more like a dooiney-molla For Jack, lak helpin him to woo." See, too, Mr. Hall Caine's "Manxman," p. 73.

[90] See Plat. "Rep." 342 D, for a specimen of Socratic procedure, "from one point of agreement to another."

[91] Al. "their followers." See "Mem." II. vi. 36.

[92] See Becker, "Char." Exc. iii. to Sc. xi.

[93] See "Mem." III. x. 5.

[94] Cf. Ep. St. James iii. 10, "Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing."

[95] Or, "to the many." The question is ambiguous. {e} = "an" or "quam."

[96] Or, "he deserves to do a rattling business," "to take handsome fees." Cf. Sheridan's Mrs. Coupler, in "A Trip to Scarborough."

[97] See Diog. Laert. "Antisth." VI. i. 8; Plut. "Symp." ii. 1. 503.

[98] Or, "going to give up business, and hand on the trade to me as your successor?"

[99] Cf. Plat. "Theaet." 150 A; Aristot. "Eth. N." v. 2, 13; Aeschin. 3, 7; Plut. "Solon," 23.

[100] Or, "the sage," "the sophist." See "Mem." I. vi. 13; II. i. 21.

[101] See "Mem." IV. iv. 5; and for his art of memory cf. Plat. "Hipp. min." 368 D; "Hipp. maj." 285 E.

[102] The "memoria technica" (see Aristot. "de An." iii. 3, 6), said to have been invented by Simonides of Ceos. Cic. "de Or." ii. 86; "de Fin." ii. 32; Quinct. xi. 2. 559.

[103] Or, "has grown amorous to a degree" [al. "an adept in love's lore himself." Cf. Plat. "Rep." 474 D, "an authority in love."-- Jowett] "for the simple reason he can't forget each lovely thing he once has seen." Through the "ars memoriae" of Hippias, it becomes an "idee fixe" of the mind.

[104] Perhaps Zeuxippus. See Plat. "Prot." 318 B. Al. Zeuxis, also a native of Heraclea. See "Mem." I. iv. 3; "Econ." x. 1.

[105] Or, "introduced him to me." Cf. "Econ." iii. 14; Plat. "Lach." 200 D.

[106] "An out-and-out {kalos te kagathos}."

[107] Who this Phliasian is, no one knows.

[108] Al. "like two hounds chevying after one another."

[109] Al. "and cement desirable matrimonial connections." Cf. Aristot. "Pol." iii. 9, 13. 1280 B; v. 4, 5-8. 1303 B.

[110] See the conversation with Critobulus, so often referred to, {peri philias}, in "Mem." II. vi.

[111] See Hug, "Einleitung," xxxi. "Quellen des Platonischen Symposion."

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