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Ξενοφώντος Συμπόσιον Β

THE SYMPOSIUM or The Banquet by Xenofon,
Translation by H. G. Dakyns

῾Ως δ᾿ ἀφῃρέθησαν αἱ τράπεζαι καὶ ἔσπεισάν τε καὶ ἐπαιάνισαν, ἔρχεται αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ κῶμον Συρακόσιός τις ἄνθρωπος, ἔχων τε αὐλητρίδα ἀγαθὴν καὶ ὀρχηστρίδα τῶν τὰ θαύματα δυναμένων ποιεῖν, καὶ παῖδα πάνυ γε ὡραῖον καὶ πάνυ καλῶς κιθαρίζοντα καὶ ὀρχούμενον. Ταῦτα δὲ καὶ ἐπιδεικνὺς ὡς ἐν θαύματι ἀργύριον ἐλάμβανεν. Now the tables were removed, and in due order they had poured out the libation, and had sung the hymn.1 To promote the revelry, there entered now a Syracusan, with a trio of assistants: the first, a flute-girl, perfect in her art; and next, a dancing-girl, skilled to perform all kinds of wonders; lastly, in the bloom of beauty, a boy, who played the harp and danced with infinite grace. This Syracusan went about exhibiting his troupe, whose wonderful performance was a source of income to him.
᾿Επεὶ δὲ αὐτοῖς ἡ αὐλητρὶς μὲν ηὔλησεν, ὁ δὲ παῖς ἐκιθάρισε, καὶ ἐδόκουν μάλα ἀμφότεροι ἱκανῶς εὐφραίνειν, εἶπεν ὁ Σωκράτης· Νὴ Δί᾿, ὦ Καλλία, τελέως ἡμᾶς ἑστιᾷς. Οὐ γὰρ μόνον δεῖπνον ἄμεμπτον παρέθηκας, ἀλλὰ καὶ θεάματα καὶ ἀκροάματα ἥδιστα παρέχεις. After the girl had played to them upon the flute, and then the boy in turn upon the harp, and both performers, as it would appear, had set the hearts of every one rejoicing, Socrates turned to Callias: A feast, upon my word, O princeliest entertainer!2 Was it not enough to set before your guests a faultless dinner, but you must feast our eyes and ears on sights and sounds the most delicious?
Καὶ ὃς ἔφη· Τί οὖν εἰ καὶ μύρον τις ἡμῖν ἐνέγκαι, ἵνα καὶ εὐωδίᾳ ἑστιώμεθα; To which the host: And that reminds me, a supply of unguents might not be amiss;3 what say you? Shall we feast on perfumes also?4
Μηδαμῶς, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης. ὥσπερ γάρ τοι ἐσθὴς ἄλλη μὲν γυναικί, ἄλλη δὲ ἀνδρὶ καλή, οὕτω καὶ ὀσμὴ ἄλλη μὲν ἀνδρί, ἄλλη δὲ γυναικὶ πρέπει. Καὶ γὰρ ἀνδρὸς μὲν δήπου ἕνεκα ἀνὴρ οὐδεὶς μύρῳ χρίεται. Αἱ μέντοι γυναῖκες ἄλλως τε καὶ ἂν νύμφαι τύχωσιν οὖσαι, ὥσπερ ἡ Νικηράτου τοῦδε καὶ ἡ Κριτοβούλου, μύρου μὲν τί καὶ προσδέονται; Αὐταὶ γὰρ τούτου ὄζουσιν· ἐλαίου δὲ τοῦ ἐν γυμνασίοις ὀσμὴ καὶ παροῦσα ἡδίων ἢ μύρου γυναιξὶ καὶ ἀποῦσα ποθεινοτέρα. Καὶ γὰρ δὴ μύρῳ μὲν ὁ ἀλειψάμενος καὶ δοῦλος καὶ ἐλεύθερος εὐθὺς ἅπας ὅμοιον ὄζει· αἱ δ᾿ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐλευθερίων μόχθων ὀσμαὶ ἐπιτηδευμάτων τε πρῶτον χρηστῶν καὶ χρόνου πολλοῦ δέονται, εἰ μέλλουσιν ἡδεῖαί τε καὶ ἐλευθέριοι ἔσεσθαι. No, I protest (the other answered). Scents resemble clothes. One dress is beautiful on man and one on woman; and so with fragrance: what becomes the woman, ill becomes the man. Did ever man anoint himself with oil of myrrh to please his fellow? Women, and especially young women (like our two friends' brides, Niceratus' and Critobulus'), need no perfume, being but compounds themselves of fragrance.5 No, sweeter than any perfume else to women is good olive-oil, suggestive of the training-school:6 sweet if present, and when absent longed for. And why? Distinctions vanish with the use of perfumes. The freeman and the slave have forthwith both alike one odour. But the scents derived from toils--those toils which every free man loves7-- need customary habit first, and time's distillery, if they are to be sweet with freedom's breath, at last.8
Καὶ ὁ Λύκων εἶπεν· Οὐκοῦν νέοις μὲν ἂν εἴη ταῦτα· ἡμᾶς δὲ τοὺς μηκέτι γυμναζομένους τίνος ὄζειν δεήσει; Here Lycon interposed: That may be well enough for youths, but what shall we do whose gymnastic days are over? What fragrance is left for us?
Καλοκἀγαθίας νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης. Soc. Why, that of true nobility, of course.
Καὶ πόθεν ἄν τις τοῦτο τὸ χρῖμα λάβοι; Lyc. And whence shall a man obtain this chrism?
Οὐ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη, οὐ παρὰ τῶν μυροπωλῶν. Soc. Not from those that sell perfumes and unguents, in good sooth.
᾿Αλλὰ πόθεν δή; Lyc. But whence, then?
῾Ο μὲν Θέογνις ἔφη·"᾿Εσθλῶν μὲν γὰρ ἀπ᾿ ἐσθλὰ διδάξεαι· ἢν δὲ κακοῖσι συμμίσγῃς, ἀπολεῖς καὶ τὸν ἐόντα νόον." Soc. Theognis has told us:From the good thou shalt learn good things, but if with the evil Thou holdest converse, thou shalt lose the wit that is in thee.9
Καὶ ὁ Λύκων εἶπεν· ᾿Ακούεις ταῦτα, ὦ υἵε; Lyc. (turning to his son). Do you hear that, my son?
Ναὶ μὰ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, καὶ χρῆταί γε. ᾿Επεὶ γοῦν νικηφόρος ἐβούλετο τοῦ παγκρατίου γενέσθαι, σὺν σοὶ σκεψάμενος, [ὄς ἔδοξεν αύτῷ κράτιστος εἴναι παιδοτρίβης, τοῦτον εἷλετο, νῦν δ᾿ αὖ, ἐαν βούληται τῇ ἀρετῇ διαφέρειν] ὃς ἂν δοκῇ αὐτῷ ἱκανώτατος εἶναι εἰς [τὸ] ταῦτα ἐπιτηδεῦσαι, τούτῳ συνέσται. That he does (Socrates answered for the boy), and he puts the precept into practice also; to judge, at any rate, from his behaviour. When he had set his heart on carrying off the palm of victory in the pankration, he took you into his counsel;10 and will again take counsel to discover the fittest friend to aid him in his high endeavour,11 and with this friend associate.
᾿Ενταῦθα δὴ πολλοὶ ἐφθέγξαντο· καὶ ὁ μέν τις αὐτῶν εἶπε· Ποῦ οὖν εὑρήσει τούτου διδάσκαλον; ὁ δέ τις ὡς οὐδὲ διδακτὸν τοῦτο εἴη, ἕτερος δέ τις ὡς εἴπερ τι καὶ ἄλλο καὶ τοῦτο μαθητόν. Thereupon several of the company exclaimed at once. "Where will he find a teacher to instruct him in that wisdom?" one inquired. "Why, it is not to be taught!" exclaimed another; to which a third rejoined: "Why should it not be learnt as well as other things?"12
῾Ο δὲ Σωκράτης ἔφη· Τοῦτο μὲν ἐπειδὴ ἀμφίλογόν ἐστιν, εἰς αὖθις ἀποθώμεθα· νυνὶ δὲ τὰ προκείμενα ἀποτελῶμεν. ῾Ορῶ γὰρ ἔγωγε τήνδε τὴν ὀρχηστρίδα ἐφεστηκυῖαν καὶ τροχούς τινα αὐτῇ προσφέροντα. Then Socrates: The question would seem at any rate to be debatable. Suppose we defer it till another time, and for the present not interrupt the programme of proceedings. I see, the dancing-girl is standing ready; they are handing her some hoops.
᾿Εκ τούτου δὴ ηὔλει μὲν αὐτῇ ἡ ἑτέρα, παρεστηκὼς δέ τις τῇ ὀρχηστρίδι ἀνεδίδου τοὺς τροχοὺς μέχρι δώδεκα. ἡ δὲ λαμβάνουσα ἅμα τε ὠρχεῖτο καὶ ἀνερρίπτει δονουμένους συντεκμαιρομένη ὅσον ἔδει ῥιπτεῖν ὕψος ὡς ἐν ῥυθμῷ δέχεσθαι αὐτούς. And at the instant her fellow with the flute commenced a tune to keep her company, whilst some one posted at her side kept handing her the hoops till she had twelve in all. With these in her hands she fell to dancing, and the while she danced she flung the hoops into the air--overhead she sent them twirling--judging the height they must be thrown to catch them, as they fell, in perfect time.13
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης εἶπεν· ᾿Εν πολλοῖς μέν, ὦ ἄνδρες, καὶ ἄλλοις δῆλον καὶ ἐν οἷς δ᾿ ἡ παῖς ποιεῖ ὅτι ἡ γυναικεία φύσις οὐδὲν χείρων τῆς τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὖσα τυγχάνει, γνώμης δὲ καὶ ἰσχύος δεῖται. ὥστε εἴ τις ὑμῶν γυναῖκα ἔχει, θαρρῶν διδασκέτω ὅ τι βούλοιτ᾿ ἂν αὐτῇ ἐπισταμένῃ χρῆσθαι. Then Socrates: The girl's performance is one proof among a host of others, sirs, that woman's nature is nowise inferior to man's. All she wants is strength and judgment;14 and that should be an encouragement to those of you who have wives, to teach them whatever you would have them know as your associates.15
Καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης, Πῶς οὖν, ἔφη, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὕτω γιγνώσκων οὐ καὶ σὺ παιδεύεις Ξανθίππην, ἀλλὰ χρῇ γυναικὶ τῶν οὐσῶν, οἶμαι δὲ καὶ τῶν γεγενημένων καὶ τῶν ἐσομένων χαλεπωτάτῃ; Antisthenes rejoined: If that is your conclusion, Socrates, why do you not tutor your own wife, Xanthippe,16 instead of letting her17 remain, of all the wives that are, indeed that ever will be, I imagine, the most shrewish?
ὅτι, ἔφη, ὁρῶ καὶ τοὺς ἱππικοὺς βουλομένους γενέσθαι οὐ τοὺς εὐπειθεστάτους ἀλλὰ τοὺς θυμοειδεῖς ἵππους κτωμένους. Νομίζουσι γάρ, ἂν τοὺς τοιούτους δύνωνται κατέχειν, ῥᾳδίως τοῖς γε ἄλλοις ἵπποις χρήσεσθαι. Κἀγὼ δὴ βουλόμενος ἀνθρώποις χρῆσθαι καὶ ὁμιλεῖν ταύτην κέκτημαι, εὖ εἰδὼς ὅτι εἰ ταύτην ὑποίσω, ῥᾳδίως τοῖς γε ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ἀνθρώποις συνέσομαι. Καὶ οὗτος μὲν δὴ ὁ λόγος οὐκ ἄπο τοῦ σκοποῦ ἔδοξεν εἰρῆσθαι. Well now, I will tell you (he answered). I follow the example of the rider who wishes to become an expert horseman: "None of your soft-mouthed, docile animals for me," he says; "the horse for me to own must show some spirit":18 in the belief, no doubt, if he can manage such an animal, it will be easy enough to deal with every other horse besides. And that is just my case. I wish to deal with human beings, to associate with man in general; hence my choice of wife.19 I know full well, if I can tolerate her spirit, I can with ease attach myself to every human being else.
A well-aimed argument, not wide of the mark by any means!20 the company were thinking.
Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο κύκλος εἰσηνέχθη περίμεστος ξιφῶν ὀρθῶν. Εἰς οὖν ταῦτα ἡ ὀρχηστρὶς ἐκυβίστα τε καὶ ἐξεκυβίστα ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν. ὥστε οἱ μὲν θεώμενοι ἐφοβοῦντο μή τι πάθῃ, ἡ δὲ θαρρούντως τε καὶ ἀσφαλῶς ταῦτα διεπράττετο. Hereupon a large hoop studded with a bristling row of uprightswords21 was introduced; and into the centre of this ring of knivesand out of it again the girl threw somersaults backwards, forwards,several times, till the spectators were in terror of some accident;but with the utmost coolness and without mishap the girl completed herperformance.
Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης καλέσας τὸν ᾿Αντισθένην εἶπεν· Οὔτοι τούς γε θεωμένους τάδε ἀντιλέξειν ἔτι οἴομαι, ὡς οὐχὶ καὶ ἡ ἀνδρεία διδακτόν, ὁπότε αὕτη καίπερ γυνὴ οὖσα οὕτω τολμηρῶς εἰς τὰ ξίφη ἵεται. Here Socrates, appealing to Antisthenes: None of the present company,I take it, who have watched this spectacle will ever again deny thatcourage can be taught,22 when the girl there, woman should she be,rushes so boldly into the midst of swords.
Καὶ ὁ ᾿Αντισθένης εἶπεν· ᾿Αρ᾿ οὖν καὶ τῷδε τῷ Συρακοσίῳ κράτιστον ἐπιδείξαντι τῇ πόλει τὴν ὀρχηστρίδα εἰπεῖν, ἐὰν διδῶσιν αὐτῷ ᾿Αθηναῖοι χρήματα, ποιήσειν πάντας ᾿Αθηναίους τολμᾶν ὁμόσε ταῖς λόγχαις ἰέναι; He, thus challenged, answered: No; and what our friend, the Syracusan here, should do is to exhibit his dancing-girl to the state.23 Let him tell the authorities he is prepared, for a consideration, to give the whole Athenian people courage to face the hostile lances at close quarters.
Καὶ ὁ Φίλιππος, Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη, καὶ μὴν ἔγωγε ἡδέως ἂν θεῴμην Πείσανδρον τὸν δημηγόρον μανθάνοντα κυβιστᾶν εἰς τὰς μαχαίρας, ὃς νῦν διὰ τὸ μὴ δύνασθαι λόγχαις ἀντιβλέπειν οὐδὲ συστρατεύεσθαι ἐθέλει. Whereat the jester: An excellent idea, upon my word; and when it happens, may I be there to see that mighty orator24 Peisander learning to throw somersaults25 into swords; since incapacity to look a row of lances in the face at present makes him shy of military service.26
ἐκ τούτου ὁ παῖς ὠρχήσατο. Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης εἶπεν· Εἴδετ᾿, ἔφη, ὡς καλὸς [ὁ] παῖς ὢν ὅμως σὺν τοῖς σχήμασιν ἔτι καλλίων φαίνεται ἢ ὅταν ἡσυχίαν ἔχῃ; Καὶ ὁ Χαρμίδης εἶπεν· ᾿Επαινοῦντι ἔοικας τὸν ὀρχηστοδιδάσκαλον. At this stage of the proceedings the boy danced. The dance being over, Socrates exclaimed: Pray, did you notice how the beauty of the child, so lovely in repose, became enhanced with every movement of his supple body?
To which Charmides replied: How like a flatterer you are! one would think you had set yourself to puff the dancing-master.27
Ναὶ μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης· καὶ γὰρ ἄλλο τι προσενενόησα, ὅτι οὐδὲν ἀργὸν τοῦ σώματος ἐν τῇ ὀρχήσει ἦν, ἀλλ᾿ ἅμα καὶ τράχηλος καὶ σκέλη καὶ χεῖρες ἐγυμνάζοντο, ὥσπερ χρὴ ὀρχεῖσθαι τὸν μέλλοντα εὐφορώτερον τὸ σῶμα ἕξειν. Καὶ ἐγὼ μέν, ἔφη, πάνυ ἂν ἡδέως, ὦ Συρακόσιε, μάθοιμι τὰ σχήματα παρὰ σοῦ. Καὶ ὅς, To be sure (he answered solemnly); and there's another point I couldnot help observing: how while he danced no portion of his bodyremained idle; neck and legs and hands together, one and all wereexercised.28 That is how a man should dance, who wants to keep hisbody light and healthy.29 (Then turning to the Syracusan, he added):I cannot say how much obliged I should be to you, O man of Syracuse,for lessons in deportment. Pray teach me my steps.30
Τί οὖν χρήσῃ αὐτοῖς; ἔφη. ᾿Ορχήσομαι νὴ Δία. ᾿Ενταῦθα δὴ ἐγέλασαν ἅπαντες. Καὶ ὁ Σωκράτης μάλα ἐσπουδακότι τῷ προσώπῳ, Γελᾶτε, ἔφη, ἐπ᾿ ἐμοί; Πότερον ἐπὶ τούτῳ εἰ βούλομαι γυμναζόμενος μᾶλλον ὑγιαίνειν ἢ εἰ ἥδιον ἐσθίειν καὶ καθεύδειν ἢ εἰ [διὰ] τοιούτων γυμνασίων ἐπιθυμῶ, μὴ ὥσπερ οἱ δολιχοδρόμοι τὰ σκέλη μὲν παχύνονται, τοὺς ὤμους δὲ λεπτύνονται, μηδ᾿ ὥσπερ οἱ πύκται τοὺς μὲν ὤμους παχύνονται, τὰ δὲ σκέλη λεπτύνονται, ἀλλὰ παντὶ διαπονῶν τῷ σώματι πᾶν ἰσόρροπον ποιεῖν; ἢ ἐπ᾿ ἐκείνῳ γελᾶτε, ὅτι οὐ δεήσει με συγγυμναστὴν ζητεῖν, οὐδ᾿ ἐν ὄχλῳ πρεσβύτην ὄντα ἀποδύεσθαι, ἀλλ᾿ ἀρκέσει μοι οἶκος ἑπτάκλινος, ὥσπερ καὶ νῦν τῷδε τῷ παιδὶ ἤρκεσε τόδε τὸ οἴκημα ἐνιδρῶσαι, καὶ χειμῶνος μὲν ἐν στέγῃ γυμνάσομαι, ὅταν δὲ ἄγαν καῦμα ᾖ, ἐν σκιᾷ; ἢ τόδε γελᾶτε, εἰ μείζω τοῦ καιροῦ τὴν γαστέρα ἔχων μετριωτέραν βούλομαι ποιῆσαι αὐτήν; ἢ οὐκ ἴστε ὅτι ἔναγχος ἕωθεν Χαρμίδης οὑτοσὶ κατέλαβέ με ὀρχούμενον; And what use will you make of them? (the other asked). God bless me! I shall dance, of course (he answered). The remark was greeted with a peal of merriment. Then Socrates, with a most serious expression of countenance:31 You are pleased to laugh at me. Pray, do you find it so ridiculous my wishing to improve my health by exercise? or to enjoy my victuals better? to sleep better? or is it the sort of exercise I set my heart on? Not like those runners of the long race,32 to have my legs grow muscular and my shoulders leaner in proportion; nor like a boxer, thickening chest and shoulders at expense of legs; but by distribution of the toil throughout my limbs33 I seek to give an even balance to my body. Or are you laughing to think that I shall not in future have to seek a partner in the training school,34 whereby it will not be necessary for an old man like myself to strip in public?35 All I shall need will be a seven-sofa'd chamber,36 where I can warm to work,37 just like the lad here who has found this room quite ample for the purpose. And in winter I shall do gymnastics38 under cover, or when the weather is broiling under shade. . . . But what is it you keep on laughing at--the wish on my part to reduce to moderate size a paunch a trifle too rotund? Is that the source of merriment?39 Perhaps you are not aware, my friends, that Charmides--yes! he there--caught me only the other morning in the act of dancing?
Ναὶ μὰ τὸν Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Χαρμίδης· καὶ τὸ μέν γε πρῶτον ἐξεπλάγην καὶ ἔδεισα μὴ μαίνοιο· ἐπεὶ δέ σου ἤκουσα ὅμοια οἷς νῦν λέγεις, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐλθὼν οἴκαδε ὠρχούμην μὲν οὔ, οὐ γὰρ πώποτε τοῦτ᾿ ἔμαθον, ἐχειρονόμουν δέ· ταῦτα γὰρ ἠπιστάμην. Yes, that I will swear to (the other answered), and at first I stood aghast, I feared me you had parted with your senses; but when I heard your explanation, pretty much what you have just now told us, I went home and--I will not say, began to dance myself (it is an accomplishment I have not been taught as yet), but I fell to sparring,40 an art of which I have a very pretty knowledge.
Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Φίλιππος, καὶ γὰρ οὖν οὕτω τὰ σκέλη τοῖς ὤμοις φαίνει ἰσοφόρα ἔχειν ὥστε δοκεῖς ἐμοί, κἂν εἰ τοῖς ἀγορανόμοις ἀφισταίης ὥσπερ ἄρτους τὰ κάτω πρὸς τὰ ἄνω, ἀζήμιος ἂν γενέσθαι. That's true, upon my life! (exclaimed the jester). One needs but look at you to see there's not a dram of difference between legs and shoulders.41 I'll be bound, if both were weighed in the scales apart, like "tops and bottoms," the clerks of the market42 would let you off scot-free.
Καὶ ὁ Καλλίας εἶπεν· ᾿Ω Σώκρατες, ἐμὲ μὲν παρακάλει, ὅταν μέλλῃς μανθάνειν ὀρχεῖσθαι, ἵνα σοι ἀντιστοιχῶ τε καὶ συμμανθάνω. Then Callias: O Socrates, do please invite me when you begin your dancing lessons. I will be your vis-a-vis,43 and take lessons with you.
῎Αγε δή, ἔφη ὁ Φίλιππος, καὶ ἐμοὶ αὐλησάτω, ἵνα καὶ ἐγὼ ὀρχήσωμαι. ᾿Επειδὴ δ᾿ ἀνέστη, διῆλθε μιμούμενος τήν τε τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ τὴν τῆς παιδὸς ὄρχησιν. Καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ὅτι ἐπῄνεσαν ὡς ὁ παῖς σὺν τοῖς σχήμασιν ἔτι καλλίων ἐφαίνετο, ἀνταπέδειξεν ὅ τι κινοίη τοῦ σώματος ἅπαν τῆς φύσεως γελοιότερον· Come on (the jester shouted), give us a tune upon the pipe, and let me show you how to dance.
So saying up he got, and mimicked the dances of the boy and girl in burlesque fashion, and inasmuch as the spectators had been pleased to think the natural beauty of the boy enhanced by every gesture of his body in the dance, so the jester must give a counter- representation,44 in which each twist and movement of his body was a comical exaggeration of nature.
ὅτι δ᾿ ἡ παῖς εἰς τοὔπισθεν καμπτομένη τροχοὺς ἐμιμεῖτο, ἐκεῖνος ταὐτὰ εἰς τὸ ἔμπροσθεν ἐπικύπτων μιμεῖσθαι τροχοὺς ἐπειρᾶτο. Τέλος δ᾿ ὅτι τὸν παῖδ᾿ ἐπῄνουν ὡς ἐν τῇ ὀρχήσει ἅπαν τὸ σῶμα γυμνάζοι, κελεύσας τὴν αὐλητρίδα θάττονα ῥυθμὸν ἐπάγειν ἵει ἅμα πάντα καὶ σκέλη καὶ χεῖρας καὶ κεφαλήν. ᾿Επειδὴ δὲ ἀπειρήκει, κατακλινόμενος εἶπε· Τεκμήριον, ὦ ἄνδρες, ὅτι καλῶς γυμνάζει καὶ τὰ ἐμὰ ὀρχήματα. "᾿Εγὼ γοῦν διψῶ· καὶ ὁ παῖς ἐγχεάτω μοι τὴν μεγάλην φιάλην. And since the girl had bent herself backwards and backwards, till she was nearly doubled into the form of a hoop, so he must try to imitate a hoop by stooping forwards and ducking down his head. And as finally, the boy had won a round of plaudits for the manner in which he kept each muscle of the body in full exercise whilst dancing, so now the jester, bidding the flute-girl quicken the time (presto! presto! prestissimo!), fell to capering madly, tossing legs and arms and head together, until he was fairly tired out, and threw himself dead beat upon the sofa, gasping:
There, that's a proof that my jigs too are splendid exercise; at any rate, I am dying of thirst; let the attendant kindly fill me the mighty goblet.45
- Νὴ Δί᾿, ἔφη ὁ Καλλίας, καὶ ἡμῖν γε, ἐπεὶ καὶ ἡμεῖς διψῶμεν ἐπὶ σοὶ γελῶντες." Quite right (said Callias), and we will pledge you. Our throats are parched with laughing at you.
῾Ο δ᾿ αὖ Σωκράτης εἶπεν· ᾿Αλλὰ πίνειν μέν, ὦ ἄνδρες, καὶ ἐμοὶ πάνυ δοκεῖ· τῷ γὰρ ὄντι ὁ οἶνος ἄρδων τὰς ψυχὰς τὰς μὲν λύπας, ὥσπερ ὁ μανδραγόρας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, κοιμίζει, τὰς δὲ φιλοφροσύνας, ὥσπερ ἔλαιον φλόγα, ἐγείρει. Δοκεῖ μέντοι μοι καὶ τὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν σώματα ταὐτὰ πάσχειν ἅπερ καὶ τὰ τῶν ἐν γῇ φυομένων. καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνα, ὅταν μὲν ὁ θεὸς αὐτὰ ἄγαν ἁθρόως ποτίζῃ, οὐ δύναται ὀρθοῦσθαι οὐδὲ ταῖς αὔραις διαπνεῖσθαι· ὅταν δ᾿ ὅσῳ ἥδεται τοσοῦτον πίνῃ, καὶ μάλα ὀρθά τε αὔξεται καὶ θάλλοντα ἀφικνεῖται εἰς τὴν καρπογονίαν. Οὕτω δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς ἂν μὲν ἁθρόον τὸ ποτὸν ἐγχεώμεθα, ταχὺ ἡμῖν καὶ τὰ σώματα καὶ αἱ γνῶμαι σφαλοῦνται, καὶ οὐδὲ ἀναπνεῖν, μὴ ὅτι λέγειν τι δυνησόμεθα· ἂν δὲ ἡμῖν οἱ παῖδες μικραῖς κύλιξι πυκνὰ ἐπιψακάζωσιν, ἵνα καὶ ἐγὼ ἐν Γοργιείοις ῥήμασιν εἴπω, οὕτως οὐ βιαζόμενοι μεθύειν ὑπὸ τοῦ οἴνου ἀλλ᾿ ἀναπειθόμενοι πρὸς τὸ παιγνιωδέστερον ἀφιξόμεθα. At this point Socrates: Nay, gentlemen, if drinking is the order of the day, I heartily approve. Wine it is in very truth that moistens the soul of man,46 that lulls at once all cares to sleep, even as mandragora47 drugs our human senses, and at the same time kindles light-hearted thoughts,48 as oil a flame. Yet it fares with the banquets of men,49 if I mistake not, precisely as with plants that spring and shoot on earth. When God gives these vegetable growths too full a draught of rain, they cannot lift their heads nor feel the light air breathe through them; but if they drink in only the glad supply they need, they stand erect, they shoot apace, and reach maturity of fruitage. So we, too, if we drench our throats with over- copious draughts,50 ere long may find our legs begin to reel and our thoughts begin to falter;51 we shall scarce be able to draw breath, much less to speak a word in season. But if (to borrow language from the mint of Gorgias52), if only the attendants will bedew us with a frequent mizzle53 of small glasses, we shall not be violently driven on by wine to drunkenness, but with sweet seduction reach the goal of sportive levity.
᾿Εδόκει μὲν δὴ ταῦτα πᾶσι· προσέθηκε δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος ὡς χρὴ τοὺς οἰνοχόους μιμεῖσθαι τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἁρματηλάτας, θᾶττον περιελαύνοντας τὰς κύλικας. The proposition was unanimously carried, with a rider appended by Philippus: The cup-bearers should imitate good charioteers, and push the cups round, quickening the pace each circuit.54
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[1] See Plat. "Symp." 176 A; Athen. ix. 408.

[2] Lit. "in consummate style."

[3] Lit. "suppose I tell the servant to bring in some perfumes, so that we may further feast on fragrance . . ." Cf. Theophr. "Char." vii. 6 (Jebb ad loc.)

[4] See Athen. xv. 686.

[5] Cf. Solomon's Song, iv. 10: "How fair is thy love, my sister, my spouse! how much better is thy love than wine! and the smell of thine ointments than all spices!"

[6] Lit. "the gymnasium."

[7] Cf. Aristoph. "Clouds," 1002 foll. See J. A. Symonds, "The Greek Poets," 1st s., p. 281.

[8] See "Mem." III. x. 5; "Cyrop." VIII. i. 43.

[9] Theog. 35 foll. See "Mem." I. ii. 20; Plat. "Men." 95 D.

[10] It looks as if something had been lost intimating that Autolycus would have need of some one to instruct him in spiritual things. For attempts to fill up the lacuna see Schenkl.

[11] Or, "these high pursuits."

[12] Cf. for the question {ei arete didakton}, "Mem." I. ii. 19; IV. i; "Cyrop." III. i. 17; III. iii. 53.

[13] "In time with the music and the measure of the dance."

[14] Reading, as vulg. {gnomes de kai iskhuos deitai}; al. continuing {ouden} from the first half of the sentence, transl. "she has no lack of either judgment or physical strength." Lange conj. {romes} for {gnomes}, "all she needs is force and strength of body." See Newman, op. cit. i. 419.

[15] Lit. "so that, if any of you has a wife, he may well take heart and teach her whatever he would wish her to know in dealing with her." Cf. "N. A." i. 17.

[16] See Cobet, "Pros. Xen." p. 56; "Mem." II. ii. 1; Aul. Gell. "N. A." i. 17.

[17] Lit. "dealing with her," "finding in her"; {khro} corresponding to {khresthai} in Socrates' remarks.

[18] Lit. "Because I see the man who aims at skill in horsemanship does not care to own a soft-mouthed, docile animal, but some restive, fiery creature."

[19] Lit. "being anxious to have intercourse with all mankind, to deal with every sort of human being, I possess my wife."

[20] Cf. Plat. "Theaet." 179 C.

[21] See Becker, "Char." p. 101. Cf. Plat. "Symp." 190; "Euthyd." 294.

[22] Cf. "Mem." III. ix. 1.

[23] Or, "to the city," i.e. of Athens.

[24] Or, "tribune of the people." Cf. Plat. "Gorg." 520 B; "Laws," 908 D.

[25] Or, "learning to go head over heels into swords."

[26] For Peisander see Cobet, "Pros. Xen." p. 46 foll. A thoroughgoing oligarch (Thuc. viii. 90), he was the occasion of much mirth to the comic writers (so Grote, "H. G." viii. 12). See re his "want of spirit" Aristoph. "Birds," 1556:

{entha kai Peisandros elthe
deomenos psukhen idein, e
zont ekeinon proulipe, k.t.l.}

where the poet has a fling at Socrates also:

Socrates beside the brink,
Summons from the murky sink
Many a disembodied ghost;
And Peisander reached the coast
To raise the spirit that he lost;
With conviction strange and new,
A gawky camel which he slew,
Like Ulysses.--Whereupon, etc.

H. Frere

Cf. "Peace," 395; "Lysistr." 490.

[27] See "The Critic," I. ii.

[28] Cf. "Pol. Lac." v. 9.

[29] Cf. Aristot. "H. A." vi. 21. 4.

[30] "Gestures," "postures," "figures." See Eur. "Cycl." 221; Aristoph. "Peace," 323; Isocr. "Antid." 183.

[31] "Bearing a weighty and serious brow."

[32] "Like your runner of the mile race." Cf. Plat. "Prot." 335 E.

[33] Or, "resolute exercise of the whole body." See Aristot. "Pol." viii. 4. 9; "Rhet." i. 5. 14.

[34] Or, "be dependent on a fellow-gymnast." "Pol. Lac." ix. 5; Plat. "Soph." 218 B; "Laws," 830 B; "Symp." 217 B, C.

[35] Or, "to strip in puiblic when my hair turns gray." Socrates was (421 B.C.) about 50, but is pictured, I think, as an oldish man.

[36] See Aristot. "H. A." ix. 45. 1; "Econ." viii. 13.

[37] Passage referred to by Diog. Laert. ii. 5. 15; Lucian, "de Salt." 25; Plut. "Praec. San." 496.

[38] "Take my exercise."

[39] Zeune cf. Max. Tyr. "Diss." vii. 9; xxxix. 5.

[40] "Sparring," etc., an art which Quintil. "Inst. Or." i. 11, 17, attributes to Socrates. Cf. Herod. vi. 129 concerning Hippocleides; and Rich, "Dict. of Antiq." s.v. "Chironomia."

[41] Lit. "your legs are equal in weight with your shoulders." Cf. "Od." xviii. 373, {elikes . . . isophoroi boes}, "of equal age and force to bear the yoke."--Butcher and Lang.

[42] See Boeckh, "Public Economy of Athens," p. 48; Aristoph. "Acharn." 723; Lys. 165, 34.

[43] Cf. "Anab." V. iv. 12.

[44] Reading {antepedeizen}. Cf. Plat. "Theaet." 162 B; "Ages." i. 12; if vulg. {antapedeizen}, transl. "would prove per contra each bend," etc. Cf. Aristot. "Rhet." ii. 26. 3.

[45] Cf. Plat. "Symp." 223 C.

[46] Cf. Plat. "Laws," 649; Aristoph. "Knights," 96: Come, quick now, bring me a lusty stoup of wine, To moisten my understanding and inspire me (H. Frere).

[47] Cf. Plat. "Rep." vi. 488 C; Dem. "Phil." iv. 133. 1; Lucian v., "Tim." 2; lxxiii., "Dem. Enc." 36.
See "Othello," iii. 3. 330: Not poppy, nor mandragora, Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world; "Antony and Cl." i. 5, 4.

[48] Cf. 1 Esdras iii. 20: "It turneth also every thought into jollity and mirth," {eis euokhian kai euphrosunen}. The whole passage is quoted by Athen. 504. Stob. "Fl." lvi. 17.

[49] Reading {sumposia}, cf. Theog. 298, 496; or if after Athen. {somata} transl. "persons."

[50] Or, "if we swallow at a gulp the liquor." Cf. Plat. "Sym." 176 D.

[51] See "Cyrop." I. iii. 10, VIII. viii. 10; Aristoph. "Wasps," 1324; "Pol. Lac." v. 7.

[52] For phrases filed by Gorgias, see Aristot. "Rhet." iii. 3; "faults of taste in the use of metaphors," Longin. "de Subl." 3. See also Plat. "Symp." 198 C.

[53] Cf. Aristoph. "Peace," 1141; Theophr. "Lap." 13; Lucian, xvii., "De merc. cond." 27; Cic. "Cat. m." 14, transl. "pocula . . . minuta atque rorantia."

[54] Or, "at something faster than a hand-gallop each round." See the drinking song in "Antony and Cl." i. 7. 120.

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